Alfonso X El Sabio - "Cantigas De Santa Maria"

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Cantigas de Santa Maria

The Cantigas de Santa Maria ("Canticles of Holy Mary") are 420 poems with musical notation, written in Galician-Portuguese during the reign of Alfonso X El Sabio (1221–1284) and often attributed to him.

It is one of the largest collections of monophonic (solo) songs from the Middle Ages and is characterized by the mention of the Virgin Mary in every song, while every tenth song is a religious hymn.

The manuscripts have survived in four codices: two at El Escorial, one at Madrid's National Library, and one in Florence, Italy. Some have colored miniatures showing pairs of musicians playing a wide variety of instruments.

Description

The Cantigas are written in Galician-Portuguese, the lyrical language of Castile at the time. The Cantigas are composed of 420 poems, 356 of which are in a narrative format relating to Marian miracles; the rest of them, except an introduction and two prologues, are of lore or involve Marian festivities. The Cantigas depict the Virgin Mary in a very humanized way, often having her play a role in earthly episodes.

The authors are unknown, even if several studies indicate that Galician poet Airas Nunes might well have been the author of a large part of them. King Alfonso X — named as Affonso in the Cantigas — is also believed to be an author of some of them as he refers himself in first person. Support for this theory can be found in the prologue of the Cantigas. Also, many sources credit Alfonso owing to his influence on other works within the poetic tradition, including his introduction on religious song. Although King Alfonso X's authorship is debatable, his influence is not. While the other major works that came out of Alfonso's workshops, including histories and other prose texts, were in Castilian, the Cantigas are in Galician-Portuguese, and reflect the popularity in the Castilian court of other poetic corpuses such as the cantigas d'amigo and cantigas d'amor.

The metrics are extraordinarily diverse: 280 different formats for the 420 Cantigas. The most common are the virelai and the rondeau. The length of the lines varies between two and 24 syllables. The narrative voice in many of the songs describes an erotic relationship, in the troubadour fashion, with the Divine. According to 2000 publishings by scholar Manuel Pedro Ferreira the models for the Cantigas might actually be something different than a traditional French rondeau. He calls the format for some of the Cantigas the "Andalusian rondeau" which has a structure of AB/BB/AB.

The music is written in notation which is similar to that used for chant, but also contains some information about the length of the notes. Several transcriptions exist. The Cantigas are frequently recorded and performed by Early Music groups, and quite a few CDs featuring music from the Cantigas are available.

Codices

The Cantigas are preserved in four manuscripts: To (codice de Toledo), T, F (codice de Florencia) and E (codice de los musicos). E is currently held in El Escorial and contains the largest number of Cantigas (400+); it contains no less than 41 carefully detailed miniatures and many illuminated letters. To, from Toledo, is the earliest of the manucripts and contains the smallest number of songs (101). Although it is not illustrated, it is richly decorated with pen flourished initials, and great care has been taken over its construction. The T and FFlorence manuscripts are sister volumes. T contains just under 200 cantigas which roughly correspond in order to the first two hundred in E, each song is illustrated with either 6 or 12 miniatures that depict scenes from the cantiga. F follows the same format but has only 109 cantigas. These are the same as those found in the second half of E, however they are presented here in a radically different order. F was never finished, and so no music was ever added. Only the empty staves display the intention to add musical notation to the codice at a later date. It is generally thought that the codices were constructed during Alfonso's lifetime, To perhaps in the 1270s, and T/F and E in the early 1280s up until the time of his death in 1284.

The music

The musical forms within the Cantigas, and there are many, are still being studied. There have been many false leads, and there is little beyond pitch value that is very reliable. Mensuration is a particular problem in the Cantigas, and most attempts at determining meaningful rhythmic schemes have tended, with some exceptions, to be unsatisfactory. This remains a lively topic of debate and study. Progress, while on-going, has nevertheless been significant over the course of the last 20 years. According to Manuel Pedro Ferreira, a scholar on the Cantigas, the music found in the Cantigas cannot be classified as Arabic, but instead must be classified as "Moorish-Andalusian". This musical influence is unusual in European music of the Middle Ages, and lends special qualities to the collection, although it does not predominate. The more obvious and demonstrable influences that come directly from the Latin and Byzantine ecclesiastical traditions must be taken into account.

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facsimiles, illuminations, links to transcriptions:
www.pbm.com/~lindahl/cantigas/

full text with syllable marks, pronunciation guide and concordance:
www.cantigasdesantamaria.com/

A discography of attributed works:
www.medieval.org/emfaq/composers/cantigas.html

The Centre for the Study of the Cantigas de Santa Maria of Oxford University
csm.mml.ox.ac.uk/

Кантига

Кантига (исп., португ. cantiga, правильно — кантига), испанская и португальская паралитургическая песня XIII-XIV веков.

По содержанию кантига — универсальная энциклопедия средневекового мира. Различают cantigas de amigo (любовные песни, написанные от лица женщины), cantigas de amor (песни о любви, написанные от лица мужчины), cantigas de escarnio e maldizer («песни насмешки и злословия»), cantigas de geste (жесты, эпические песни). Стилистически приземлённым языком кантиги пересказывают общеевропейские миракли и местные анекдоты, повествуют о походах купцов в заморские страны и странствиях пилигримов к святыням, живописуют битвы христиан с неверными. Значительное место занимают картины быта, нередко с сатирическим оттенком (жестокое наказание еврея-ростовщица; врач, ампутирующий ногу сам себе; побег монахини, соблазнённой рыцарем; женщина, испытывающая отчаяние в связи с потерей мужа, вступает во внебрачную связь со своим сыном; порка, повешение, обезглавливание, сожжение преступников и т.д.).

Большую часть дошедших до нас кантиг составляют песни деве Марии (cantigas de Santa Maria) — более 420 пьес, записанных при дворе короля Альфонсо X Мудрого в 1270-90 годах (не исключено, что сам монарх был автором многих кантиг). Дошли до нас в четырёх богато иллюстрированных манускриптах, которые датируются концом XIII — 1-й половиной XIV вв. В трёх из них кантиги записаны квадратной нотацией (существует острая проблема их ритмической транскрипции), в четвёртом только стихи, без нотной записи. «Альфонсинские» кантиги, написанные на галисийско-португальском языке (который служил языком лирической поэзии в тогдашней Испании), описывают совершённые Богородицей чудеса (cantigas de miragre), каждая десятая кантига — песнь в Её хвалу (cantiga de loor). Все альфонсинские кантиги содержат рефрен, стихотворная форма обнаруживает влияние испано-арабской поэтической формы заджаль. Основная текстомузыкальная форма кантиги — виреле. Склад одноголосный. Мелодии преимущественно в дорийском и миксолидийском ладах, количество мелизмов невелико.

Около 20 кантиг учёные идентифицировали как контрафактуры репертуара труверов и трубадуров, остальные — местного происхождения. Авторы кантиг (поэты и композиторы) как правило неизвестны; среди немногих известных авторов — галисийский жонглёр («хуглар») Мартин Кодакс (Кодас; между 1240 и 1270) и португальский король-трубадур Диниш I (Dom Dinis; годы правления 1279–1325).

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    Последние изменения в документе сделаны 27/10/2016 22:15:54

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