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  Наименование CD :
   Il Divino



Год издания : 2008

Компания звукозаписи : Naive

Время звучания : 1:08:09

Код CD : E 8921 (8 22186 08921 7)

  Комментарий (рецензия) :

CD, стоящие на полке рядом : Classics (Reconstruction)      

Francesco Canona or Canova was born near Milan in 1497 and died in 1543. It was his place of birth rather than his family name which was almost exclusively used when referring to him during his professional life. He was the personal lutenist in Rome to Cardinal Ippolito de Medici and to Popes Leo X (1513-1521), Clement VII (1523-34), and Paul III (1534-1549). Francesco's first printed works date from 1536. In that year, three publications appeared, two of which were devoted only to works by Francesco. The third was an anthology in which his music can be found alongside anonymous dances and pieces by his contemporaries. The works which have survived are of two types, Fantasias or Recercars, and vocal works, of which there are two in this program. Several anonymous dances also appear in this selection which are taken from Castigliono's book of 1536. Also included is one dance by their contemporary, Alberto da Mantova, who is also represented in the 1536 book and who was lutenist to Francois I in France where he was know as Albert de Rippe.

Born in New York in 1946, Hopkinson Smith graduated from Harvard with Honours in Music in 1972. After his studies he became involved in numerous chamber music projects, including the foundation of the ensemble Hesperion XX. His ten-year collaboration with Jordi Savall led to important experiences in collective music-making which were a creative complement to his career as a soloist. Since the mid-1980s, he has focused almost exclusively on the solo repertoires for early plucked instruments, producing a long series of prize-winning recordings for Naive/Astree. These feature Spanish music for vihuela and Baroque guitar, French lute music of the Renaissance and Baroque, early seventeenth-century Italian music, and the German High Baroque. The recording of his lute arrangements of the Bach Sonatas and Partitas for solo violin, released in the year 2000, has been universally acclaimed in the press. Gramophone called it 'the best recording of these works on any instrument'.

All Music Guide

========= from the cover ==========

Francesco Da Milano by Hopkinson Smith</p>

'I heard Francesco da Milano, the greatest of lute players and a dear friend of mine, perform upon this theme in Rome in front of Pope Paul III.'

-Salinas, De Musica (Salamanca, 1557)

The most intriguing aspects of Francesco da Milano's musical character will remain forever unknown to us. He was a performer/composer whose music making was considered divine. What were the qualities of the sounds he produced from his lute? How did he weave his magic? Through what means did he bring his counterpoint to life? How did he breathe life into some of the most complex polyphony ever written for the lute in such a rivetting way? Francesco was known as 'il divino'. Divinity implies provenance from another world - some force or inspiration that speaks directly to the soul and lifts it to reaches unaccustomed in daily life. In more recent times, a spiritual dimension has been associated with other performers as well: concerts by the pianist Artur Schnabel 'were communions... and when the audience dispersed, it was with a feeling of having been cleansed'; and of the young Glenn Gould a concert critic once said 'only theological vocabulary can express this unique spiritual manifestation from a higher sphere. This is indeed religious music, those are religious sounds'. Perhaps the figure of Mozart who was not only the performer but also improvisor / composer (as were many of the great sixteenth century lutenists) has more parallels with Francesco: 'Others may reach heaven by their works. But Mozart, he comes, he comes from there.'

Francesco's playing was spellbinding for his listeners: 'in playing the lute, he was not only excellent but unsurpassed... there have been none who could equal him and it will be difficult to find someone equal in the future'; 'none was his equal in lute playing when it was a question of using sweetness with infinite graces'; and 'so ravishing a harmony [brought his listeners to] an ecstatic state of some kind of divine frenzy.'

For those who heard him, Francesco was an incredible communicator who transformed his public. For us, knowing him only through his compositions, he is above all a great mind and incredible organizer of exquisite musical ideas. His compositions range from loosely assembled improvisatory wanderings (very few) to highly structured perfectly proportioned masterpieces. In an instrumental texture of two, three and occasionally four or more voices, he brought continuous invention to life with a clarity of texture which realizes the lute's possibilities in an ideal way.

Francesco Canona or Canova was born near Milan in 1497 and died in 1543. It was his place of birth rather than his family name which was almost exclusively used when referring to him during his professional life. As a lutenist, he was welcomed at princely courts throughout Italy - there are accounts documenting performances in Venice, Piacenza and Naples - but his principal employers were in Rome. He was the personal lutenist to Cardinal Ippolito de Medici and to Popes Leo x (1513-1521), Clement vii (1523-34), and Paul III (1534-1549) in whose entourage he was when the Pope went to Nice in 1538 to meet with Frangois I of France and the Hapsburg Emperor, Charles v. Francesco's first printed tablatures date from 1536. In that year, three publications appeared, two of which were devoted only to works by Francesco. The third was an anthology published by Casteliono in Milan where his music can be found along side anonymous dances and pieces by his contemporaries. More publications followed and continued to appear until long after his death. (As with Josquin des Pres, his posthumous reputation was such that works attributed to him just kept coming.)

The works which have survived are of two genres: Fantasias or Recercari - the names are used interchangeably, the latter being somewhat more archaic - and intabulations of vocal works (of which there are two in this program). Both of these types of pieces are essentially contrapuntal and can be very demanding on the members of the audience requiring them to become at times 'virtuoso listeners' as they penetrate the interaction and winding ways of the musical lines.

For the lutenist trying to create a balanced program with Francesco's works, whether in the twenty-first or, I'm sure, in the sixteenth century, the complexity of so much of his output presents something of a dilemma. There come moments in a recital where one wants to give the mind a rest and set the spirit free by letting the feet shuffle to a different tune.

There are great quantities of dance music in the lute tablatures of Renaissance Italy, and I have turned to this repertoire in this recording to put Francesco's creations into a certain perspective. All of the pieces attributed to 'anonymous'. In this program are dances taken from Castigliono's book of 1536. Since Pietro Paolo Borrono was the collection's editor, there is a good chance that these may be his creations. He and Francesco did collaborate in further lute publications. I have also included one dance by their contemporary, Alberto da Mantova, who is also represented in the 1536 book and who was lutenist to Frangois I in France where he was know as Albert de Rippe. But we know that Francesco was a skilled improvisor of dance music as well. There is mention in the book of the Spanish music theorist, Salinas, who lived in Rome for many years of having heard Francesco improvise upon a dance tenor (a variant of the bergamesca) before Pope Paul in. What other types of dances might he have improvised? Did he consider this type of music-making to be a 'creation of the moment'? Might he have felt that his dances were unworthy of his name and reputation and therefore left no written traces of them?

His mastery of counterpoint was such that he was certainly in another category as an improvisor from his lutenist-composer contemporaries. The anonymous dances from Castigliono and the Gagliarda by Alberto are certainly charming and very effective pieces, but their musical language is clearly inspired by a world very different from his. We will, of course, never know exactly what Francesco might have done, but, for me, this does not exclude the possibility of creating dance pieces more closely related to the thematic material and the style of writing of the fantasies and recerari. This is precisely what I have done in the five pieces in this program marked as 'reconstructions'.

The first of these, a Saltarello, is inspired by motives in Recercar 3 (the number refers to the piece's place in the modern edition by Arthur Ness) and also serves as a type of dance piece that might have inspired the Recercar. The second, the Ballo 'Doma la donna', is based directly on themes and counterpoint from Fantasia 41 partly using Francesco's technique of starting a section in two voices and adding a third at the cadence. In the Fantasy itself, I have added some ornamented repeats of the first and last of its three sections while leaving the second section, which is a canon at the octave, as it is. The third reconstruction, 'Plus de Tristesse', opens with the motive from the last section of the preceeding Fantasia completing the triptych of Chanson, Fantasia and Dance. 'Sola la dolce sirena' is a madrigal-like three-voice piece which connects Recercar 2 with Fantasia 40. It starts with a theme which is the reduction of the cantus firmus-like opening upper voice of the former and goes on to develop the motive which comes from the middle voice at the culminating moment of the latter before returning to its vocally-inspired refrain. The last reconstruction, the Pavan, 'Mi fato e miserabil sorte', connects two famous fantasies with identical themes. Each of the Francesco pieces is a tour-de-force and the pavan, where the motive is transposed down a fourth, should provide a respite between them while remaining close to their musical language.

The final fantasy of the program, La Compagna (it is the 'companion' to Fantasy 33) is found only in sources that significantly postdate Francesco's death. Because of this, and the fact that in three instances the contrapuntal language strays from what I imagine Francesco would have done, I have modified these passages and added an ending which seems to bring the fantasy's energy to a more fitting conclusion.


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   1 Fantasia Dal Secondo Tono         0:02:18 Fantasia No. 30 For Lute
   2 Recercar Dal Quinto Tono         0:03:03 Recercar No. 30 For Lute (Ness No. 15)
   3 Il Pescatore Che Va Cantando         0:02:05 For Lute
   4 Quand'io Penso Al Martir         0:02:30 Madrigal Arranged For Lute (by Francesco Da Milano)
   5 Fantasia Dal Primo Tono         0:02:16 Fantasia No. 64 For Lute
   6 Saltarello         0:01:54 For Lute
   7 Recercar Dal Settimo Tono         0:02:58 Recercar No. 3 For Lute
   8 Recercar Dal Quarto Tono         0:02:44 Recercar No. 51 For Lute
   9 Recercar Dal Quinto Tono         0:02:12 Recercar No. 41 For Lute
   10 Doma La Donna Se Solo Si Sona         0:03:50 Ballo For Lute
   11 Fantasia 'La Piu Bella & Divina A Che Abbia Fatto'         0:05:40 Fantasia No. 55 For Lute
   12 Gagliarda         0:01:03 For Lute (attrib. Alberto Da Mantova)
   13 De Mon Triste Desplaisir (Richafort)         0:02:16 For 4 Voices
   14 Fantasia 'De Mon Triste'         0:02:15 Fantasie No. 36 For Lute
   15 Plus De Tristesse, Prends Ta Maitresse         0:02:38 For Lute
   16 Recercar Dal Quinto Tono         0:01:40 Recercar No. 28 For Lute
   17 Fantasia Dal Quinto Tono         0:02:17 Fantasia No. 39 For Lute
   18 Che Glian Strazza La Socha         0:03:18 For Lute
   19 Recercar Dal Ottavo Tono         0:03:47 Recercar No. 2 For Lute
   20 Sola La Dolce Sirena         0:03:19 For Lute
   21 Fantasia Dal Ottavo Tono         0:02:13 Fantasia No. 40 For Lute
   22 Fantasia Sopra Mi-Fa-Mi         0:02:43 Fantasia No. 33 For Lute
   23 Mi Fato E Miserabil Sorte         0:03:15 Pavana For Lute
   24 Fantasia 'La Compagna'         0:02:51 Fantasia No. 34 For Lute
   25 La Mantuanella         0:03:04 For Lute

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