Описание CD

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  Исполнитель(и) :
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  Наименование CD :
   Tristan Et Yseut

Год издания : 2005

Компания звукозаписи : Zig Zag Territoires

Время звучания : 1:00:47

Код CD : ZZT 051002

  Комментарий (рецензия) :

CD, стоящие на полке рядом : Classics (Reconstruction)      

Alla Francesca was founded in 1989, by members of Ensemble Gilles Binchois. The central members of Alla Francesca are Brigitte Lesne (voice, harp), Emmanuel Bonnardot (voice, fiddle) and Pierre Hamon (winds), and each of the three continues to perform with Ensemble Gilles Binchois as well as their own projects. Lesne directs the female vocal ensemble Discantus, Bonnardot directs the vocal ensemble Obsidienne, while Hamon works as a recorder soloist in a broad range of repertory. As of 2002, Alla Francesca is directed by Hamon alone.

Alla Francesca:

Brigitte Lesne (voice, harpe)

Emmanuel Vistorky (voice)

Pierre Hamon (flutes, cornamuse)

Vivabiancaluna Biffi (vielle)

Michael Grebil (cittern, gittern)

Birgit Goris (vielle)

Bruno Caillat (tambourines)

Recording site and date:

Chapelle de l'Ecole Sainte-Genevieve, Versailles, France [02/2004]

========= from the cover ==========

In choosing to perform the lais of Tristan from the Vienna manuscript, we were sure that we were approaching shores full of musical and poetic riches. In the now emblematic story of the love of Tristan and Yseut, we would also and above all find ourselves at the heart of the thematic concerns of the courtly lyric, one of our repertories of choice. Taken in isolation, the lais do not weave a narrative. They are like punctuations, commentaries, parentheses linked to a stage in the story. Moreover, they appear only long after the beginning of the manuscript, depriving its whole first part of a musical counterpoint. We have therefore chosen to reconstitute an order based on the succession of music and themes: love, anger, sadness, folly, and death, starting with Tristan and ending with Yseut. Some lais are short - in which case we have chosen to sing them complete - while others contain a very large number of verses from which we have had to make a selection, while still preserving their poetic quintessence. This selection has enabled us to present eleven lais out of the manuscript's total of seventeen.

One observes a sort of mise en abyme in the scenario surrounding the appearance of the lais : the anonymous author or authors attribute their composition to protagonists in the story, who themselves have been introduced to them by another character, who, finally, often has them performed by a third character - here a damsel, there a harper (the harp, which Tristan plays himself, is especially prominent). This last character, the minstrel - the performing artist of the time - is the one we can impersonate most naturally, since after all his or her trade is already ours!

Hence there is no the atricalisation, no handing out of roles: the female singer is not Yseut, the male soloist is not Tristan; the protagonists are still present, but as it were indirecdy, in a narrative texture that each of us may reconstruct or reinvent at will... Some minstrels were also instrumentalists, and perfect virtuosos on their instruments. It is a tricky business to identify their performance practices, since their skills were obviously transmitted orally. However, useful information is to be gleaned from iconography, the research of instrument makers, a few literary texts, and from practices still alive today in the world of monophonic music of oral tradition. Hence our approach is, eidier within the lais or in alternation with them, to reconstruct these different instrumental practices - preludes, commentaries, dances - in a spirit that may have been that of the musicians of the time. Such at any rate is our conviction.

-Alia francesca


'Not you without me, nor I without you.' The "Western conception of the lover seems to have been fashioned by the tragic story of Tristan and Yseut.

The myth, probably Celtic in origin, was retold many times over. Thus by the time the first written texts appeared, around 1170, there were already multiple versions. Two trouveres, first Beroul then Thomas, each wrote a Tristan in French verse. Other anonymous authors added episodes known as the Folk Tristan which are now conserved in libraries in Oxford and Berne. Finally, still in the domain of French literature, Marie de France developed in the Lai du Chevrefeuille the famous metaphor of the hazel and the honeysuckle which cannot survive for long when separated. The legend was soon adapted into German by Eilhart von Oberge, then by Gottfried von Strassburg, while a certain Brother Robert wrote an Old Norse saga on the theme for the king of Denmark.

The texts in French verse have unfortunately come down to us in mutilated sources, so that the legend as we know it today is made up of the sum total of a mosaic of narratives. In the end, the tale of the legendary lovers consists of a number of principal episodes: the birth of Tristan, his combat with the giant Morholt, after which he is healed by Yseut's mother, his conquest of the golden-haired girl for his uncle King Mark, the sea voyage and the drinking of the fatal potion, the lovers' flight into the forest, Tristan's marriage with Yseut of the White Hands, Tristan's visit to King Mark's court disguised as a minstrel, the sickness and death of Tristan, soon joined by Yseut the Fair.

The myth was constandy rewritten. Soon medieval storytellers added other tales to the main outline. As early as the thirteenth century there appeared several prose versions which show the influence of the fashionable romances of chivalry: Tristan mingles with figures from King Arthur's Round Table, and his love for Yseut is compared to the adulterous relationship between Queen Guinevere and Sir Lancelot. The tradition of these Prose Tristans is a rich and lasting one: there are more than eighty extant manuscripts, and printed versions were reissued several times right up to the end of the sixteenth century.

While digressions multiplied around the original legend, lyric poems began to be created to add emphasis to the story. These were inserted in the narrative framework, but although they were very probably sung, only two manuscripts of the Prose Tristan transmit their melody. The more important of the two is held in Vienna by the music department of the Osterreichische Nationalbibliothek, under the class mark 2542. It assembles seventeen monophonic lais purportedly composed either by the story's three protagonists (Yseut, Tristan and Mark) or by secondary characters often absent from the original narrative (including the harper Kahedin, Dinadan, and Palamedes).

Right from the earliest sources, the character of Tristan combines knightly prowess with the art of the minstrel. The Folk d'Oxford, for example, depicts Tristan disguised as a court fool relating to Yseut the intimate moments of their relationship. He reminds her how, when they first met, he pretended to be a minstrel and taught her to play the harp and sing Breton lais, and how he later succeeded in reconquering her by playing the rote (plucked string instrument) better than the harper who had abducted her from King Mark. Tristan, then, is certainly a talented performer, but he is also a renowned author. In fact, in the Prose Tristan many songs are attributed to him and sung by others. Thus the moment of performance is staged by the storytellers: a damsel asks Tristan to demonstrate 'what he knows of harping and singing', which is the cue for him to perform La u jou fui dedens la mer, then she tells him that she knows all the lays he has composed, and sings Apres chou que je vi victoire for him. Yseut the Fair also sings of her passionate lover. Of the three lais attributed to her, Li solaus luist is undoubtedly the most moving. It begins like a reverdie. But this evocation of spring's renewal contrasts cruelly with the cry of despair of Yseut, who, after being hearing of Tristan's death, desires only her own end.

The lais that have come down to us in the Vienna anthology are perfecdy representative of the lyric genre cultivated in the thirteenth century, quite distinct from the complex form developed by Guillaume de Machaut in the fourteenth. All but two of the poems are made up of a long succession of stanzas of four octosyllables with identical rhymes. The musical structure is also of great simplicity. In general, the same melody is repeated, more or less exactly, from one strophe to the next. Within each quatrain, the first two lines are sung to the same phrase while the next two use new music (that is, an a a b c scheme). These songs rarely cover a range of more than an octave; the melodic style is conjunct and virtually syllabic. The square notation, typical of the monophonic repertories of this period, is unmeasured. Thus the rhythm is not governed by the beat of a regular pulse (as in modern metre) but follows the fluctuating delivery of speech; it retains the flexibility of plainchant.

MS 2542 presents one rare feature which is of great interest to modern performers. The music, although strophic, is noted throughout. Usually, in chansonniers of this period, the melody is written out only once, above the first strophe, following the principle of economy typical of medieval scribes. Here, the continuous notation shows that the vocal line is not entirely uniform. From one strophe to another, changes are made: a note is modified, a group of three notes is divided between one, two or three syllables, the same note is repeated, or an ornament is added. These variants, though very slight, reveal all the subtlety of medieval lyric art: the quest for an equilibrium situated between, on the one hand, a state of hypnosis produced by the repetition of a simple melodic line discreetly decorated, and on the other part the constant renewal of the harmony between text and music.

An anthology of estampies of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (London, British Library, Add. 29987) contains a pair of Italian dances with the evocative titles Lamento di Tristano and Rotta, which testify to the widespread diffusion of the Celtic legend in the Middle Ages. The two pieces are distinct in tempo and rhythm but their musical material is identical; it may derive from a now lost lyric poem. This is the hypothesis followed by the musicians of the Alla francesca ensemble, who have also composed two additional dances, a nota and an estampie, based on the melodies of the different lais of the Vienna manuscript. The lais chosen for this recording, divorced from their narrative context, are not arranged in the order of the Prose Tristan: the single connecting thread that runs through them is the eternal quest of the legendary lovers who 'singing and weeping, die of perfect love'.

- Isabelle Ragnard

  Соисполнители :

Birgit Goris (Vihuela)
Bruno Caillat (Tambourine)
Emmanuel Vistorky (Vocals)
Michael Grebil (Cymbals)
Vivabiancaluna Biffi (Vihuela)

№ п/п

Наименование трека



   1 Nota - Danse Instrumentale         0:01:43  
   2 D'Amours Vient Mon Chant Et Mon Plour - Lai No17         0:01:47  
   3 Apres Chou Que Je Vi Victoire - Lai 'De Victoire' No15         0:04:18  
   4 Estampie - Instrumentale         0:04:07  
   5 Tant Me Sui De Dire Teus - La 'Voir Disant' No8         0:05:00  
   6 Tant Me Sui De Dire Teus - Danse Instrumentale         0:01:51  
   7 La u Jou Fui Dedens La Mer - Lai Du 'Boire Pesant' No16         0:04:05  
   8 Sans Cuer Sui Et Sans Cuer Remain - Lai (instrumentale) No6         0:02:29  
   9 Ja Fi Canchonettes Et Lais - Lai 'Mortel' No1         0:03:54  
   10 D'Amours Viennent Li Dous Penser - Lai No9         0:04:18  
   11 A Toi, Roi Artus, Qui Signeur - Lai No10         0:01:31  
   12 Folie N'est Pas Vaselage - Lai No4         0:03:33  
   13 Rotta - Du 'Lamento De Tristan' (instrumental)         0:02:03  
   14 En Morant De Si Douche Mort - Lai No5         0:03:54  
   15 Lamento De Tristan - Instrumental         0:03:37  
   16 Le Solaus Luist Et Clers Et Biaus - Lai No2         0:06:52  
   17 Lai Du Chevrefeuille - Instrumental         0:05:45  


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