Estonian National Male Choir, Goteborgs Symfoniker Orchestra
Ants Soots, Ants Uleoja - Choir Master
Симфония № 13
Симфония № 13 b-moll "Бабий Яр", op.113 (1962) в пяти частях, для баса, хора басов и оркестра на стихи Е. Евтушенко. Премьера - 18 декабря 1962, Москва, Большой зал Консерватории. В. Громадский (бас), Государственный хор и хор Гнесинского института, оркестр Московской филармонии, дирижёр К. Кондрашин.
Симфония № 13 "Бабий Яр" си-бемоль минор соч. 113 - симфония Дмитрия Дмитриевича Шостаковича для солиста (баса), хора басов и оркестра на стихи Е. А. Евтушенко.
Работу над симфонией Дмитрий Дмитриевич начал ещё в марте 1962 года. Основой текста стали пять стихотворений советского поэта Е. А. Евтушенко: "Бабий Яр", "Юмор", "В магазине", "Страхи", "Карьера".
Выбранное в качестве первой части стихотворение "Бабий Яр" после написания стало предметом многих дискуссий и споров. Автора обвинили в отсутствии патриотизма и одностороннем освещении темы - в тексте не были упомянуты жертвы не еврейской национальности. Этот факт, однако, не остановил Шостаковича… Тем самым он взял на себя ответственность за возможные последствия выбора… Стихотворение "Страхи" Евтушенко написал специально для симфонии.
The Symphony No. 13 in B flat minor (Op. 113, subtitled Babi Yar) by Dmitri Shostakovich was first performed in Moscow on 18 December 1962 by the Moscow Philharmonic Orchestra and the basses of the Republican State and Gnessin Institute Choirs, under Kirill Kondrashin (after Yevgeny Mravinsky refused to conduct the work). The soloist was Vitali Gromadsky. This work has been variously called a song cycle and a choral symphony since the composer included settings of poems by Yevgeny Yevtushenko that concerned the World War II Babi Yar massacre and other topics. The five poems Shostakovich set to music (one poem per movement) are earthily vernacular and cover every aspect of Soviet life.
Babi Yar: Adagio (15-18 minutes)
In this movement, Shostakovich and Yevtushenko transform the mass murder by Nazis of Jews at Babi Yar, near Kiev, into a denunciation of anti-Semitism in all its forms. (Although the Soviet government did not erect a monument at Babi Yar, it still became a place of pilgrimage for Soviet Jews.) Shostakovich sets the poem as a series of theatrical episodes - the Dreyfus affair, the Bialystok pogrom and the story of Anne Frank- as extended interludes to the main theme of the poem, lending the movement the dramatic structure and theatrical imagery of opera while resorting to graphic illustration and vivid word painting. For instance, the mocking of the imprisoned Dreyfus by poking umbrellas at him through the prison bars may be in an accentuated pair of quarter-notes in the brass, with the build-up of menace in the Anne Frank episode, culminating in the musical image of the breaking down of the door to the Franks' hiding place, which underlines the hunting down of that family.
Humour: Allegretto (8-9 minutes)
Shostakovich quotes his setting of the Robert Burns poem "MacPherson Before His Execution" to colour Yevtushenko's imagery of the spirit of mockery, endlessly murdered and endlessly resurrected, denouncing the vain attempts of tyrants to shackle wit. The movement is a Mahlerian gesture of mocking burlesque, not simply light or humorous but witty, satirical and parodistic. The irrepressible energy of the music illustrates that, just as with courage and folly, humor, even in the form of "laughing in the face of the gallows" is both irrepressible and eternal (a concept, incidentally, also present in the Burns poem). He also quotes a melody of the Sonata for Two Pianos and Percussion by Bartok ironically, as response for the criticism toward Symphony 7.
In the Store: Adagio (10-13 minutes)
This movement is about the hardship of Soviet women during World War II. It is also a tribute to patient endurance. This arouses Shostakovich's compassion no less than racial prejudice and gratuitous violence. Written in the form of a lament, the chorus departs from its unison line in the music's two concluding harmonized chords for the only time in the entire symphony, ending on an plagal cadence functioning much the same as a liturgical amen.
Fears: Largo (11-13 minutes)
This movement touches on the subject of Nazi repression and is the most elaborate musically of the symphony's five movements, using a variety of musical ideas to stress its message, from an angry march to alternating soft and violent episodes. Notable here are the orchestral effects - the tuba, for instance, hearkening back to the "midnight arrest" section of the first movement of the Fourth Symphony - containing some of the composer's most adventurous instrumental touches since his Modernist period. It also foresees some of Shostakovich's later practices, such as an 11-note tone row played by the tuba as an opening motif. Harmonic ambiguity instills a deep sense of unease as the chorus intones the first lines of the poem: "Fears are dying-out in Russia." Shostakovich breaks this mood only in response to Yevtushenko's agitprop lines, "We weren't afraid/of construction work in blizzards/or of going into battle under shell-fire," parodying the Soviet marching song Smelo tovarishchi v nogu ("Bravely, comrades, march to step").
Career: Allegretto (11-13 minutes)
While this movement opens with a pastoral duet by flutes over a B flat pedal bass, giving the musical effect of sunshine after a storm, it is an ironic attack on bureaucrats, touching on cynical self-interest and robotic unanimity while also a tribute to genuine creativity. It follows in the vein of other satirical finales, especially the Eighth Symphony and the Fourth and Sixth String Quartets. The soloist comes onto equal terms with the chorus, with sarcastic commentary provided by the bassoon and other wind instruments, as well as rude squeaking from the trumpets. It also relies more than the other movements on purely orchestral passages as links between vocal statements.
Shostakovich's interest in Jewish subjects dates from 1943, when he orchestrated the opera Rothschild's Violin by Jewish composer Venyamin Fleishman. This work contained characteristics which would become typical of Shostakovich's Jewish idiom - the Phrygian mode with an augmented third and the Dorian mode with an augmented fourth; the iambic prime (a series of two notes on the same pitch in an iambic rhythm, with the first note of each phrase on an upbeat); and the standard accompaniments to Jewish klezmer music. After completing the opera, Shostakovich used this Jewish idiom in his Second Piano Trio, including a macabre Jewish dance in its finale that is said to reflect his horror on hearing the news of the Holocaust then reaching Russia.
By 1948 Shostakovich had become familiar with an extensive collection of Jewish folk music located in Vilnius, Lithuania. This collection, despite being destroyed by the Germans during the war, had been preserved partially through I.L. Kagan's publication Jidiser folkor, which had appeared in Vilnius in 1938, and reconstructed by Moshe (Moisei) Beregovsky, who had access to recordings of Jewish folk songs made on field expeditions to the Ukraine in the 1920s and 1930s. Bergovensky presented these songs as part of his PhD thesis at the Moscow Conservatory in 1946. One of the examiners of Bergovensky's thesis was Shostakovich.
Shostakovich was drawn to the intonations of Jewish folk music, explaining, "The distinguishing feature of Jewish music is the ability to build a jolly melody on sad intonations. Why does a man strike up a jolly song? Because he is sad at heart."
Between 1948 and 1952 Shostakovich composed a series of works in which the Jewish idiom played a part. These works included the First Violin Concerto, the Fourth String Quartet, the song cycle From Jewish Folk Poetry, the 24 Preludes and Fugues and the Four Monologues on Texts by Pushkin. The composition of these works coincided roughly with the virulent state-sanctioned anti-Semitism prevalent in Russia in those years, as part of the anti-Western campaign of Zhdanovshchina. The Soviet people were told that the Jews had to be excluded from Soviet life because they had an innate tendency to glorify the West. Jewish intellectuals were persecuted and Jewish institutions were shut down. While Shostakovich's music on the whole was virtually banned during this period due to the Zhdanov decree, smaller works such as the Fourth String Quartet and From Jewish Folk Poetry became widely known to many of the composer's compatriots through play-throughs at musicians' homes.
Shostakovich returned to Jewish themes in 1959, including them in his First Cello Concerto, the Eighth String Quartet, the Thirteenth Symphony and the orchestral version of From Jewish Folk Poetry. In 1970, he also contributed to a collection of Jewish songs that was subsequently published. The link between the Jewish theme and protests against the Soviet regime was most pronounced in the Thirteenth Symphony. In this work, Shostakovich dispensed with the Jewish idiom, as the text was perfectly clear without it.
Symphony 14 др. исполнение
Symphony 14 др. исполнение
Симфония № 15
Symphony 15 др. исполнение
Симфония № 15 A-dur, Op.141 (1971). Премьера - 8 января 1972, Москва, Симфонический оркестр Государственного телевидения и Всесоюзного радио, дирижёр М. Шостакович
Симфония № 15 ля мажор, соч.141 - симфония Дмитрия Шостаковича, написанная в срок чуть более месяца, в течение лета 1971 г. в поселке Репино. Впервые исполнена в Москве 8 января 1972 года Большим симфоническим оркестром Центрального телевидения и Всесоюзного радио под управлением Максима Шостаковича.
В музыкальную ткань этой симфонии органично включены цитаты из оперы "Вильгельм Тель" Дж. Россини и "Кольцо Нибелунгов" Р. Вагнера (так называемая "тема судьбы"). Присутствуют намеки на музыку Михаила Глинки и Густава Малера. Также музыкальный материал в определенной степени перекликается с его предыдущими симфониями (начало симфонии № 1, Ритм "темы нашествия" в симфонии № 7).
Премьера в США состоялась в 1972 году, дирижер Юджин Орманди. Симфония имела успех у публики. Например, режиссёр Дэвид Линч под звуки этой симфонии написал сценарий культового фильма "Синий бархат" (1986).
The Symphony No. 15 in A major (Opus 141), Dmitri Shostakovich's last, was written in a little over a month during the summer of 1971 in Repino. It was first performed in Moscow on 8 January 1972 by the All-Union Radio and Television Symphony Orchestra under Maxim Shostakovich.
Shostakovich originally subtitled the first movement to "The Toyshop", referring to a superficial sense of childlike innocence and naivete which is soon corrupted. It opens with two chimes on the glockenspiel and a lengthy passage for the solo flute, growing out of a quirky five-note motif which flits between A? major and A minor (connected by a C?), accompanied by slow-changing but lively chords for pizzicato strings. A? being As in German notation, these five notes, E?-A?-C-B-A, spell out the name "SASCHA", the name of his grandson who was nine years old at the time (compare this to the "Elmira" theme in Symphony No. 10). Whooping off-beat horn chords, use of the clarinet's altissimo register, regular glockenspiel interjections, lusty trumpet fanfares, drum rolls, and solo passages for bassoon and xylophone make up the brightly coloured, infantile sound world of this movement; yet the bizarre harmonic ambiguity and unpredictable employment of variable tempi shatter any sense of real innocence. Though Shostakovich often quotes rhythms from Gioachino Rossini's William Tell Overture, in this movement he quotes the tune as well (see the Quotations section below). Two particularly striking passages make use of the device of prolation canon, first in the strings and later in the woodwind. Both these passages create complex textures: at rehearsal figure 29, he makes use of an 8:6:5 polyrhythm. All these features contribute powerfully to the strange and enigmatic atmosphere of the movement.
The second movement (opening in the far-removed key of F minor) opens with an eerie chorale for the brass alone. Chromatic thirds move simultaneously in three octaves in the trumpets, tenor trombones and bass trombone and tuba, against a pedal C in the horns. A sense of pathos is achieved by the despairing rises and falls in the dynamics, and the solo 'cello plays a languorous and meandering lament, exploiting an enormous tessitura from the lowest open string to the thirteenth position. Low register flutes play a simple motif (in sixths, accompanied by 'cello trills) which is eventually taken over and expanded upon by the solo trombone. A side-drum roll brings the entire brass section to a fortissimo statement of the initial flute theme, and a crashing chorale for brass (without trumpets), timpani, bassoons and double basses sounds against an impassioned chromatic melody for strings and high woodwind, derived from material used in the first movement, to create a colossal, distorted, organ-like effect. After a selection of quieter instrumental groupings and a recapitulation of the trombone melody (this time accompanied by pulsating timpani semiquavers), an adagio celesta solo is ingeniously imitated by the combination of 'cello string harmonics and vibraphone, eventually used to accompany a solo double bass, before a final reference to the opening brass chorale.
Parallel fifths in the bassoons eventually settle on a G and D double pedal, against which the woodwind section is showcased through an agitated clarinet melody built on the diminished chord, chromatic flourishes for flutes and piccolo, low clarinet murmurings, and two oboes in canon in sevenths. This is imitated by the string section (up-bows are specified for the solo violin to re-create the sound of the staccato clarinet tonguing). A trombone glissando across a minor third and a clattering interjection from the timpani contribute to the humorous character (although the movement is not termed a scherzo by the composer), and the movement ends with a cold percussive ticking that foreshadows the close of the finale, as well as a rising fourth in the piccolo, xylophone and pizzicato second violins that ends the movement firmly in G minor.
The symphony is notable for many things, among them its eerie coda on a sustained pedal point in the strings supporting an astonishing percussion toccata featuring castanets, snare drum, wood block, xylophone, and triangle. This recalls the final moments of the scherzo from the Fourth Symphony, as well as those of a much more recent and similarly morbid work, the Second Cello Concerto. The long-held note is similar to the ending of the Fourth, which ends on a long (app. 2 minutes) C minor chord. Through this fascinating melee the timpani plays the movement's main passacaglia idea, which may stem from the "invasion" theme from the Seventh Symphony. Finally the glockenspiel and celesta strike a single, sustained, C? to close on an A major chord, thus ending the symphony.
It is worth noting that Shostakovich, as he often does in his late scores, includes certain aspects of twelve-tone writing in the music. He is not interested in the structural implications of the technique, he just constructs some melodies in this style.