Описание CD

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  Исполнитель(и) :
   Glass, Philip  (Composer) , Robert Wilson (Conductor
◄◄◄        ►►►

  Наименование CD :
   Einstein On The Beach



Год издания : 1993

Компания звукозаписи : Elektra Nonesuch

Время звучания : 3:20:49

К-во CD : 3

Код CD : 7559-79323-2

  Комментарий (рецензия) :

CD, стоящие на полке рядом : Classics (Opera)      

Einstein on the Beach, opera (Эйнштейн на пляже.)

About (en, wiki)

About with notes (en)

Филип Гласс начал сочинять оригинальную музыку во время работы над звуковой дорожкой к фильму под управлением Орнетта Коулмена, когда Рави Шанкар попросил Филипа помочь ему оформить свою часть. Соединение талантов этих мастеров привело к созданию неслыханной ранее музыки. С тех пор Шанкар и Гласс часто сочиняют и записываются вместе.

В середине 60-х годов Гласс много путешествует по Северной Африке и Азии; вернувшись в 1967 году в Нью-Йорк, он знакомится с индийским исполнителем на табле Алла Ракхой. В 1968 году он формирует группу, способную исполнять его собственную музыку. Сам он не оставался в этом мире "чистого звука" слишком долго.

В 1975 году, не имея записывающего контракта, Гласс совместно с Робертом Уилсоном начал работу над первой из своих трех опер, "Einstein On The Beach". "Эйнштейн" впервые был поставлен в Европе, а до Бродвея добрался 21 ноября 1976 года, когда и произвел там фурор. Гласс подписывает контракт с фирмой CBS и выпускает успешный диск.

После успеха "Эйнштейна" Гласс начал получать заказы. Нидерландская опера заказала ему "Сатьяграху" - произведение о молодых годах Махатмы Ганди; оперу "Эхнатон" (выпущенную на одноименном диске фирмой CBS в 1988 году) он написал по заказу Штутгартского оперного театра.

Эйнштейн на пляже (1976) - музыка и текст Филип Гласс, дизайн и постановка Роберт Уилсон. Воссозданием оригинальной постановки 1976 года.

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Эйнштейн на пляже - первая опера Глассовской трилогии "Портреты"; другие две, Сатьяграха и Эхнатон, посвящены соответственно Ганди и Эхнатону. Как и следующие за ним две оперы, Эйнштейн - не "сюжетная" опера, а символический набор эпизодов, живописующих портрет исторической личности, чьи идеи коренным образом изменили картину мира вокруг неё.

Филип Гласс: Эхнатон, Ганди и Эйнштейн - три человека, силой своего духа, переломившие ход истории. Вот настоящая тема моей трилогии. Эйнштейн - учёный; Ганди - политик; Эхнатон - религиозный деятель.

Фактически, Эйнштейн мало напоминает оперу в традиционном её понимании. Он написан для Philip Glass Ensemble, в нём совсем нет солистов - только небольшой хор, который пропевает бессмысленный набор слогов в такт музыке. Сюжетный текст читает диктор, а в партии главного персонажа, Эйнштейна, вообще нет слов - она написана для скрипки.

Филип Гласс так говорил об Эйнштейне в интервью 1990 года: Оперным композитором я стал совершенно случайно. Когда Боб [Вилсон] и я вместе работали над Энштейном на пляже, он был оперой только технически, потому что единственным местом, где его можно было поставить, был оперный театр - нам требовалась оркестровая яма и большое свободное пространство сцены.

Эйнштейн на пляже стал самым знаковым сочинением Гласса. Первую постановку оперы композитор осуществил на собственные скромные средства - в 60-х и 70-х годах он зарабатывал на жизнь в качестве нью-йоркского таксиста. Минимализм в те годы был мало интересен широкой публике. О первых выступлениях Philip Glass Ensemble Гласс рассказывал так: На наш первый концерт пришло шесть человек: двое из них были мои друзья, и одна была моя мать. После премьеры Энштейна всё изменилось - Гласс оказался буквально завален заказами от ведущих оперных театров мира (в т.ч. Метрополитан и Ла Скала) и вскоре стал самым исполняемым (по совокупному числу постановок) оперным композитором XX века.

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Исполнители:

Philip Glass Ensemble:

Jon Gibson: Soprano saxophone, flute.

Philip Glass: Organ.

Iris Hiskey: Voice.

Richard Landry: Flute, soprano saxophone, bass clarinet.

Kurt Munkacsi: Sound mix.

Richard Peck: Alto saxophone, flute.

Michael Riesman: Organ, synthesizer bass, additional keyboards.

Conducted by Michael Riesman.

Small Chorus:

David Anchel: Bass.

Sean Barker: Bass KNEE 4.

Iris Hiskey: Soprano.

Marc Jacobi: Tenor.

Dora Ohrenstein: Alto.

Phillip Gavin Smith: Tenor KNEE 4.

Large Chorus:

George Andoniadis.

Connie Beckley.

Ritty Ann Burchfield.

Bruce Burroughs.

Frank Conversano.

Grethe Holby.

Jeannie Hutchins.

Marc Jacobi.

Richard Morrison.

Dana Reitz.

Marie Rice.

Ronald Roxbury.

Forest Warren.

David Woodberry.

Michael Riesman: Choral conductor.

Paul Zukofsky: Violin.

Spoken text by:

"Airconditioned supermarket": Lucinda Childs.

"Paris", "Two lovers": Samuel Johnson.

"These are the days", "Do you know", "I feel the Earth move", "Mr. Bojangles": Christopher Knowles.

Philip Glass Ensemble

Composed in 1976.

Recorded January-June 1993 at The Looking Glass Studio, NYC.

Mixed at The Looking Glass Studio.

Front cover photograph and other production photographs taken July 24 & 25, 1992 at the McCarter Theater Center for the Performing Arts, Princeton, New Jersey.

The chorus appears on tracks1-1 to 1-5, 2-2 to 2-4, 3-1, 3-2 (men), 3-3, 3-7 & 3-8 (women).

"For me," Philip Glass once claimed, "minimalism was over in 1974." It was in the spring of that year that Glass began meeting with stage director Robert Wilson with the purpose of collaborating on a new work for musical theater. The result, Einstein on the Beach, changed the course of Glass's career while also blurring the boundaries between art music and pop music and dismantling the barriers that separated their respective audiences. Considering the grand theatrical scale of Einstein, the economy of means implied by minimalism was no longer appropriate for the task. The repetitive gestures and driving rhythms found in Glass's earlier works are still present, but piled upon each other in greater measure, and combined with image and word to create a synergistic effect of "maximalist" proportion.

Far from a "The Life and Times of..." approach, Einstein on the Beach is more an abstract, five-hour musing on Einstein's personality and ideas than a biographical sketch - an approach that Glass has described as a "portrait opera." All of the performers on stage sport the scientist's trademark short-sleeved white shirt, suspenders, and pipe, while a violinist wanders between proscenium and pit in full Einsteinian garb (complete with wig and moustache), representing the physicist's noted musical hobby. The actual texts are rather vague in their references to Einstein. In fact, his name is mentioned in just two places and in contexts that are completely unclear in their meaning.

The work is a kaleidoscopic look at technology and modern life, using the figure of Einstein as a sort of mantra, than it is a picture of Einstein the man. Three primary visual images recur within the work: trains (recalling the metaphors Einstein used to illustrate the theory of relativity and with which he played as a child); a trial/bed setting (modern life and modern science examined); and a spaceship/field (a metaphor for transcendence and/or an escape from nuclear disaster).

As Robert Wilson put it, "You don't have to listen to the words, because they don't mean anything. I'm not giving you puzzles to solve, only pictures to hear." Many of the most profound and moving elements of the work are, in fact, art by accident. Since the score calls for a chorus of untrained singers (who must also dance and act), Glass aided the performers learning his constantly shifting rhythms and melodies by having them sing numbers and solfege syllables (do-re-mi, etc.). The overall effect was so striking that it was used in performance. The fragmentary nature of the text owes to its various and unique origins. During their initial meetings, Glass and Wilson were sometimes joined by Christopher Knowles, a 14-year-old autistic boy. Knowles' contributions, which constitute about two thirds of the entire spoken text, are intriguingly sporadic in their subject matter.

While Glass's music for Einstein on the Beach bears strong familial resemblance to his earlier works, it served a new, unique dramatic function - one that would reappear in his next opera, Satyagraha, as well as his numerous film scores, including The Thin Blue Line and Kundun.

-Jeremy Grimshaw (www.allmusic.com)

====

Philip Glass is the best-known living classical composer on the planet, and the type of music he helped give birth to - minimalism - is the most popular style of concert music the late 20th century has produced. Thanks in part to Glass, the awkward adjectives I've just used to categorize music have become increasingly meaningless. Glass has influenced David Bowie, Brian Eno and Laurie Anderson, among many others, and minimalism has absorbed the sounds and rhythms of rock, so who's to say any longer what's classical and what's popular, what's serious and what isn't?

But take a trip back to 1969 and get ready for a shock. In that year, Glass, following on the heels of minimalist pioneers such as Steve Reich, Terry Riley and La Monte Young forged a new style whose radical austerity thumbed its nose at every other music of the day, classical and popular. Glass' early works have long been cult classics, only available on limited-edition, out-of-print Chatham Square LPs that he produced in the early '70s. Now, they've finally been released on CD - and they've lost none of their raucous power.

When you want to start a revolution, you usually take an extreme position, and Glass did just that. Two Pages consists of a single melody that expands and contracts as it constantly repeats. Music in Fifths take two melodies, each elongating and shortening each endlessly repeated, and runs them in parallel motion. Music in Similar Motion and Contrary Motion add further intertwining lines but never compromise the severity of the structure. And Music With Changing Parts expands the scale to epic proportions - 62 minutes of unceasing repetition.

But things aren't as simple as they seem. All these early pieces, written between 1968 and 1970, unfold slowly over expanses of time, and all do strange things to your mind. At first, the relentless repetition can seem merely hypnotic. Listen carefully, however, and you begin to notice a wealth of subtly shifting detail. Soon, you realize that hardly any repetition is literal; although the pulse remains steady, the whirling melodies are constantly changing in length, and the colors are dancing like a ghostly aurora. Like some ecstatic devotional ritual, the music aims to transcend, to open the mind to new states of consciousness. Although it can be listened to for its mesmerizing, druglike effect, its real value is in heightening awareness, not numbing it.

Given the instrumentation of the Philip Glass Ensemble (in the '70s it consisted of electric keyboards, amplified winds and wordless voices) - and its slamming beat and high volume - it's easy to see why Glass' early minimalism was so influential. Glass, however, went on to other things - all of them bigger, if not better.

Over the next quarter century, Glass transformed his minimalist style into a vehicle for music theater. His first (and in many ways, finest) opera, Einstein on the Beach (1976), has been treated to a spectacular new recording that restores its full 3 1/2-hour length. Set to a text consisting primarily of meaningless numbers and syllables, Einstein was minimalism gone maximal. Since then, Glass' operas have grown more conventional; Glass himself, always prolific, has taken on too many potboilers, some of them unworthy of his name.

Which brings us to his most recent piece of music theater, Hydrogen Jukebox. It must have seemed like a great idea to take Allen Ginsberg's timelessly hip Beat poetry, create a panorama of America's social ferment of the '50s through the '80s, then set it all to six voices. But Jukebox turns out to be an awkward hybrid that dilutes both poetry and music. When Glass sets Ginsberg's texts, the result is a rhythmically stiff, singsong recitation that does violence to the poetry's unpredictable, boplike lilt. Things only get worse when Ginsberg simply reads his poems over Glass' accompaniment because the listener can never quite absorb both media simultaneously - one is forced to focus on either the text or the music. Occasionally, Glass' music (which, like Ginsberg's poetry, is soaked in pop culture) really catches the mood of the text, as in the final "Father Death Blues," set as a hushed, mournful hymn tune. But such moments are more the exception than the rule.

So what to make of Philip Glass? He has been dismissed as a mindless popularizer, criticized for compromising his ideals, and yet he continues to churn out music for a large, admiring public. Hearing his early works is a much-needed reminder that Glass, at his best, is second to none. (RS 682)

- K. Robert Schwarz (www.rollingstone.com/reviews/album/308452/review/5942866/einsteinonthebeach3cdset)


  Соисполнители :

Andrew Sterman (Clarinet, Flute, Piccolo)
Elsa Higby (Mezzosoprano Voice)
Eric W. Lamp (Tenor Voice)
Gregory Fulkerson (Violin)
Gregory Purnhagen (Baritone Voice)
Jeff Kensmoe (Baritone Voice)
Jeffrey Johnson (Bass Voice)
John Koch (Tenor Voice)
Jon Gibson (Flute, Soprano Saxophone)
Katie Geissinger (Mezzosoprano Voice)
Kristin Norderval (Soprano Voice)
Lisa Bielawa (Soprano Voice)
Margo Gezairlian Grib (Mezzosoprano Voice)
Marion Beckenstein (Soprano Voice)
Martin Goldray (Keyboards)
Michael Riesman (Conductor, Keyboards)
Michele A. Eaton (Soprano Voice)
Patricia Schuman (Soprano Voice)
Peter Stewart (Baritone Voice)
Richard Peck (Flute, Alt Saxophone, Tenor Saxophone)


№ п/п

Наименование трека

Текст

Длительность

Комментарий
   1 01 Knee 1         0:08:05  
   1 02 Train 1         0:21:26  
   1 03 Trial 1 - Entrance         0:05:43  
   1 04 Trial 1 - Mr Bojangles         0:16:30  
   1 05 Trial 1 - All Men Are Equal         0:04:31  
   1 06 Knee 2         0:06:08  
   2 01 Dance 1         0:15:54  
   2 02 Night Train         0:20:10  
   2 03 Knee 3         0:06:30  
   2 04 Trial 2 / Prison - Prematurely Air-Conditioned Supermarket         0:12:18  
   2 05 Trial 2 / Prison - Ensemble         0:06:38  
   2 06 Trial 2 / Prison - I Feel The Earth Move         0:04:09  
   3 01 Dance 2         0:19:59  
   3 02 Knee 4         0:07:05  
   3 03 Building         0:10:20  
   3 04 Bed - Cadenza         0:01:53  
   3 05 Bed - Prelude         0:04:23  
   3 06 Bed (Aria)         0:08:12  
   3 07 Spaceship         0:12:51  
   3 08 Knee 5         0:08:04  

      Обозначения:

 T   'щелкнуть' - переход к тексту композиции.

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