La rappresentatione di anima e di corpo, musical morality play (Представление о душе и теле)
"Представление о душе и теле" (итал. La Rappresentazione di anima е di corpo) композитора Эмилио де Кавальери - первая известная оратория, а по мнению некоторых - первая или одна из первых опер, "духовная опера".
- Душа - сопрано
- Тело - тенор
- Разум - альт
- Совет - тенор
- Время - тенор
- Удовольствие - альт
- 2 спутника Удовольствия - тенор, баритон
- Ангел-хранитель - сопрано
- Мир - тенор
- Мирская жизнь - сопрано
- Осужденная душа - тенор
- Благословенная душа - сопрано
- Небесный голос - сопрано
- Осторожность - разговорная роль
- Благоразумие - разговорная роль
- Хор: ангелы, осужденные и благословенные души, безымянный (4-8 голосный хор)
- Балет - праздник в финале
Montserrat Figueras (Anima), Ian Partidge (Corpo), Sven-Anders Benktsson (Tempo, Anime dannate), Nigel Rogers (Intelletto), Staffan Sandlund (Consiglio), Andrea von Ramm (Angelo custode), Hans-Alderich Billig (Mondo, Anime dannate), Theresia Klenzi (Vita Mondana), Michaela Kramer (Angelo, Anime beate), Gaby Ortmann-Rodens (Echo, Anime beate), Bjorn Haugan (Piacere), Michael Samuelsson (Compagni I), Sven-Eric Alexanderson (Compagni II, Anime dannate), Eva Csapo (Anima beata), Wolfgang Fromme (Anime beate), Helmut Clemens (Anime beate), Thomas Sunnegaardh (Anime dannate)]
Mietglieder des Collegium vocale, Koln [Michaela Kramer, Gaby Ortmann-Rodens, Wolfgang Fromme, Helmut Clemens, Hans Alderich Billig]
Solisten aus den Chorendes Schwedischen Rundfunks [Sven-Eric Alexanderson, Sven-Anders Benktsson, Bjorn Haugan, Mikael Samuelsson, Staffan Sandlund, Thomas Sunnebaardh]
C. Instrumental Ensemble
Bruce Dickey (cornett, recorder), Shigeharu Yamaoka (recorder), Ann Marie Herzberger (recorder, renaissance traverse flute), Hannelore Prante (recorder), Robin Howell (tenor dulcian, bass dulcian), Alfred Kosak (baroque trombone)
Gambensensemble der Schola Cantorum Basiliensis [Jordi Savall (treble viola da gamba), Ariane Maurette (alto viola da gamba), Masako Hirao (tenor viola da gamba), Christophe Coin (bass viola da gamba), Bela Szedlak (violone)
Michael Jappe (violoncello), Dieter Kirsch (theorbo), Toyohiko Satoh (chitarrone), Robert Strizich (chitarra battente), Colin Tilney (harpsichord), Rudolf Scheidegger (organ, regal), Shigeharu Yamaoka (percussion), Ann Marie Herzberger (percussion)
Hans-Martin Linde, dir.
Recording site and date:
Tituskirche, Basel, Switzerland [06/1976]
La rappresentatione di anima e di corpo, musical morality play
Agostino Manni, lyricist(s)
Morality plays date back to early medieval times, but this is nonetheless a seminal work in music drama. It was the first printed score to have a figured bass and the first musical morality play to survive fully intact. While the composer took advantage of its being the first printed recitar cantando (sung recitative) score to claim that the style was his sole invention, and Jacopo Peri declared him an innovator who made the new style possible, most scholars also give Peri and their contemporary Giulio Caccini roughly equal credit for the development of the style. Aside from these firsts, it also has extended and detailed recommendations for the performers, giving much more of a sense of how it would have been presented in its own time and at least an insight into general performance practices.
It was premiered in Rome, at the Oratorio (literally "prayer house," the musical style took on the name of the house, much like "zarzuela") of the Chiesa Nova, where the founder, Filippo Neri had started a tradition of performances of spiritual music for the public. While entertainment was a vital part of these presentations, the goal was to educate and to inspire meditation, and so in the notes, the composer instructs the singers to be sure to deliver the words clearly and with full attention to their meaning, and to act not only with their hands, but with other movements.
He also provided specifics for the singers' ornamentation and for the orchestration, and for performances in theaters, he even recommended certain steps and sequences for the dances, as well as writing an alternative eight-part choral ending if it was not possible to perform the four-part chorus with dances. (Peri was not only a composer and musical administrator for the Medici family, but also a voice teacher, dancer, and organist.)
While it lasts only about an hour, there are 90 separate musical numbers, including solos, choruses, recitatives, dialogs, and sinfonias. There is also a remarkable five-part sinfonia after the first act whose structure suggests the development of the modern symphony, with its emphasis on the interrelation of the contrasting parts.
Most of the creativity in this work, however, is concentrated in the style and structure, rather than the music itself, and it is easy to point out various musical cliches (especially in the rhythm), as well as a lack of expressiveness compared to Monteverdi or even Peri. However, it is still one of the most important examples of early music drama and provides an invaluable insight into early Baroque performance.
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Emilio de' Cavalieri (who was born in Rome circa 1550 and died as well there on March 11, 1602) was, as genera director of artistic and cultural affairs in the court of Grand Duke Ferdinand I Medici in Florence, decisively concerned in the development of early Florentine oper with mythological, and especially those with pastoral con tents, (Il Satiro, La Disperazione di Fileno, II Giucco della Cieca, 1595). After his return to Rome, the Rappres entazione was twice performed in February of 1600 in the Oratorio S. Maria della Vallicella. In 1575 Fra Filippo Neri founded his 'Congregazione dell 'Oratorio' in the S. Maria della Vallicella, which became most important for the development of oratorio, and in leading the layman's devotional movement in the spirit of the Council of Trent. Cavalieri was himself active in the Oratorio del Crocifisso in S. Marcello (1578-1584) before his departure to Florence. The librettist, Agostino Manni, had been a member of Filippo Neri's congregation since 1577. One has to look for the intentions of Rappresentazione in the intellectual sphere of the oratorio movement. Manni had made public in 1577 and 1583 a Dialogo di anima e d, corpo, whose main portion he used for the Rappresentazione. The work opens with a prologue in the style of the authoritative renaissance poetics of Julius Caesar Scaliger (Poetices libri septem, 1561). The two allegorical figures, prudence and reason, provide for the didactic understanding of the play They are - this is a typical feature of school theatre, and instructive for the performance praxis and addressed circle of listeners - two young people, who are still inexperienced in life, but who observe the rules of wisdom concerning the instability of the world, and of life. In "new, strange pictures", they want to represent before all viewers the correctness of their deliberation, since the knowledge and the recognition of these circumstances are of decisive importance for the salvation of mankind. The two allegorical figures, body (Corpo) and soul (Anima), have to decide themselves either for heaven or earth, Desire, her companions, the world, and wordly life try to seduce them. Angela custode, the guardian angel, strengthens them in battle and reveals the true nature of the seducers: the world is unsightly and ugly under its glorius veil, the wordly life is the mask of death. Intellect (Intelletto) and council (Consiglio) illustrate the consequence of the correct or false decision of mankind in a dialogue with the damned souls in hell, and the blissful ones in heaven, whereby heaven and hell alternately open. The theatrical effect is not an end in itself, but serves the argumentation, A 'festa' with dancing and singing closes the representation. The Rappresentazione is in the tradition of musical dialogue and drama. The Concertatio Virtutis cum Voluptate, the argument between virtue and vice over mankind (whose original form goes back to Prodicos and his given up for lost - fable about Hercules at the crossroads) had been published in the late Middle Ages and was included in morality play scripts. Through being printed, it gained a large distribution and became one of the most popular subject matters. Among others wrote Hans Sachs a Kampff-gesprech... mit fraw Tugendt und fraw Untugendt (Verbal battle... with Frau Virtue and Frau Vice.)