Описание CD

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  Исполнитель(и) :
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  Наименование CD :
   Mvsique De Ioye

Год издания : 1987/1978

Компания звукозаписи : Astree, Auvidis

Время звучания : 57:40

Код CD : E 7724 (3 298490 077245)

  Комментарий (рецензия) :

CD, стоящие на полке рядом : Classics (Reconstruction)      

========= from the cover ==========

Around 1550 there appeared at Lyons a collection of instrumental music bearing the marvellous title: " Joyous Music. Appropriate for the human voice and for learning how to play spinets, violins and flutes. With Basses Danses, selected Pavanes, Galliards and Branles by which one may learn and get to know the measures and cadences of Music and all (sorts of) dances. Composed by diverse authors, all impeccable musicians (considered) excellent in their time". After this announcement, whose advertising intentions seem clear, we read: "Sold at Lyons in the premises of Jacques Moderne, known as big Jacques". Unfortunately the work is not dated.

Despite its lenght the title remains imprecise and only partially indicates the nature of the content. In fact the Mvsicqve de Ioye consists of two sections of different style and origin, juxtaposed within the same publication. The only thing they have in common is that they were designed for instrumental performance. The first section contains twenty-two ricercari (curiously numbered with Latin numerals), representing the virtually complete republication of a Venitian collection of 1540 entitled Musica Nova. The second part consists of various dance pieces, numbered from 1 to 30, including Basses danses, Tordions, Pavanes, Gaillardes and Branles; this presents a quite different repertoire, no longer derived from Italian culture but, on the contrary, firmly rooted in French tradition.

In a certain way the Franco-Italian composition of the Mvsicqve de Ioye admirably symbolizes the social and cultural position of Lyons in the mid-sixteenth century. Situated at the confluent of the Saone and Rhone rivers, an important international crossroad, Lyons was one of the most prosperous cities in Europe. With its industry, commerce, banks and four annual trade-fair, this frontier town - which the French kings lost no opportunity to grace with their ceremonial entries - was second only to Paris in the whole kingdom. However after the Italian wars its closest links were forged with the transalpine cities. An important Italian colony grew up around the bankers and merchants which is why the musical life of Lyons, like its intellectual and artistic activity, appears to us to-day to be characterised by the juxtaposition, if not always by the synthesis, of the cultures - Italian and French. The two opposite sides of Mvsicqve de Ioye well illustrate this particular situation.

In contrast to polyphonic vocal music which had already been enriched by a long history spanning more than five centuries, instrumental music was by the middle of the sixteenth century only just emerging from its prehistory: it was just beginning to flourish at the level of written transmission and its diffusion in print was still in its early stages. Instrumental practice, which had long remained the exclusive domain of the corporations of waits, was tending increasingly to affect the habits and to be integrated into the personal culture of a certain elite section of the population, to become later a veritable social necessity. The model of Castiglione's new courtier soon particularly marked Lyonese society in which men and women of some standing were then expected to know how to play the lute, spinet or viol. Louise Labe, addressing the ladies of Lyons in 1555, implores them "to elevate their minds a little above their distaffs and bobbins" and to devote themselves to the study of music. She herself was reputed to play the lute very well. While we know little of the details of musical activity in Lyons in the mid-sixteenth century we may, without fear of error, suppose that it was intense. Not only was music the principal ornament of the royal entries and festivities but it was also included in the most intimate celebrations.

Instrumental activity at Lyons is reflected in the presence of many instrument makers and dealers. Also the products of Italian makers, including instruments of high repute, like the Paduan lutes, and the skeins of strings from the Aquila region, passed in transit through Lyons on their way to Paris or the northern countries. In 1553 the celebrated luthier, Gaspard Duiffoproucart (Tieffenbrucker) settled in Lyons. There had been a recent expansion in the corporation of instrument-makers, already well-established in the town.

This rapid survey shows that the Mvsicqve de loye collection was likely to interest, even in Lyons itself, a whole public of amateur instrumentalists who were no doubt desirious, as the work's title suggests, to "learn and get to know the measures and cadences of Music and all (sorts of) dances". But, in reality, Jacques Moderne's clientele extended well beyond the Lyonnais region since, four times a year, the famous fairs brought to Lyons a cosmopolitain crowd of dealers of all nationalities.

The Mvsicqve de loye is the result of a simple montage based on two sources, the one Italian, the other French, to which a few pieces of local origin have been added. The relatively short duration of the privileges granted to the printers at the time allowed them to undertake easily reprints of works issued by French or foreign competitors. The exclusivity, guaranteed in principle for a given period by these privileges was not always respected, especially between one country and the other. The ricercari of the first part of Jacques Mod erne's collection derive from a work published by Andrea Arrivabene at Venice in 1540, entitled Musica nova accomodato per cantar et sonar sopra organi et altri stromenti... This collection provides the first evidence of the existence of real Venetian school of instrumental composition grouped around Willaert at St. Mark's, with organist-composers like Julio Segni da Modena, Hieronimo Parabosco and Hieronimo da Bologna (G. Cavazzoni). After 1540, the publication of ricercari for keyboard or instrumental ensemble developed considerably in Italy: Cavazzoni, Buus, Padavano, Merulo and, later, the two Gabrielis progressively establish a real, orignal instrumental repertoire which, through the intermediary of the canzone, prepare the way for the fugue. The ricercari of the Musica nova constitute the very first examples of learned compositions specifically intended for instrumental ensembles: they may indeed be termed " chamber music".

The second part of the Mvsicqves de loye springs from a quite different soil. They represent an anthology of dance music in which pavanes and galliardes rub shoulders with the traditional French types of basse-dance, tourdion and branles. In fact this second part takes us back to Parisian sources (some published by Attaingnat) and confirms the notion that Moderne's collection is the result of a Paris-Venice twinning.

To this geographical juxtaposition may be added a stylistic one which was significant to the status of instrumental music in the mid-sixteenth century. The ricercari of Musica nova derive from the clerical tradition of the learned polyphonists, chapelmasters or organists; the dances spring from the unsophisticated techniques of minstrelsy. The perfection of contrapuntal writing in the former is contrasted with the rustic vitality of the latter. One is always surprised to observe how, in our Western art, music has for so long been divided into two areas of activity, so far removed from one another: that of the learned vocal polyphony of the clerics and that of the instrumental playing of the minstrels. These two categories of musician do not belong to the same environment; they are contrasted in their very different social status as well as in their mentality and divergent techniques. One rallied round (rather belatedly) the banner of St. Cecilia, while the others, organized as a corporation since the beginning of the fourteenth century, confided in St. Julian. The function of these two musical worlds progressively changed in the course of the sixteenth century and the Mvsicqve de loye marks an interesting stage on the way to this decisive evolution; for it places into the hands of instrumentalists, professional or not, on the one hand the refined and complex works signed by the greatest Venetian masters and, on the other hand, the rudimentary but vividly coloured realizations of anonymous authors. Within the same work two musical mentalities are confronted by one another and thus called to gradually transform each other. This was the moment which one may seek to explain the prodigious launch of the instrumental art in our Western music, the moment which achieved the reconciliation between the musical learning of the clerics principally invested in complex contrapuntal notation intended for vocal groups, and the concrete experience in sound of the minstrels, nourished with the techniques of ornamentation and improvisation and attentive to particular instrumental structures.

The ricercari of the Musica nova which Mod erne also designated with the term "Phantasies instrumentales" are dominated by the specific modes of vocal writing {Fantasia at that time signified free imagination and invention; the term "ricercar" or research implied the same idea of invention). These are contrapuntal pieces, conceived for four voices but without any dependence on a particular text. Their structure nevertheless refers to the implicit presence of a literary foundation, with a sectional organization, based on the treatment of a motif worked in imitation between two different parts as if they were articulating the same sentence or phrase. These ricercari by Willaert or Julio da Modena are nothing but wordless motets. With the dances, another musical space is deployed, one in which rhythmic and accentual virtues, imaginative ornamentation and the vivacity of instrumental colour predominate, with the rafinement of written devices occupying a secondary position. Unlike the ricercari the dances are not the place for real musical invention, but for arrangement, ornamental gloss and improvised variation. Their attractiveness stems mainly from the magic of ostinato and repetition. In the ricercari, the melodic material is diffused, as if by complex radiation, in all the contrapuntal voices, while in the dances it is very strongly focussed in the one high part. The minstrels' art stressed above all the tune, the principal melody. This whole repertoire was based on monodic timbres whose origins we rarely known. These timbres constitute a common heritage from which are realized harmonizations which usually remain anonymous. They were assimilated into popular tradition, transmitted orally, deformed and arranged. They were heard in dances but also in the streets and on the theatrical boards in "very good and mighty joyous" farces like that of "the newly wed who could not keep his wife's appointment)) or "the wives who recast their husbands" and many others filled with the laughter of a joie de vivre so firmly rooted in men's heart at that time: Mvsicqve de Ioye!

-Jean Michel Vaccaro (translated by Frank Dobbins)

The Performance

The realization of the present recording required the consideration of a number of factors, musical, historical and technical. Mvsicqve de Ioye, like most collections of XVIth century ensemble music, contains no precise indication of the instruments which may be used, except for the mention on the title-page "appropriee tant a la uoix humaine que pour apprendre a sonner Espinetes, Violons & fleustes"; nor are there in the different parts, characteristics of writing which suggest the probable employment of one instrument rather than another. This allows the performer a degree of liberty, which posed no problem for the XVIth century musician, who played a repertoire created in the musical life or the moment, but which for the present-day performer implies the capacity to "interpret" a conventional notation to rediscover in it the elements which allow it to be brought to life without dissociating it from its historical context.

At the time of the Renaissance there were two sorts of instrumental ensemble: 1) the "broken consort)), a kind of mixed group consisting of contrasted elements - flutes, cornets, viols, lutes, spinets, etc ..., an extension of instrumental practices whose origins were in the distant parts; 2) the "whole consort", an ensemble of instruments of the same family - recorders, flutes, viols, etc ..., of different sizes, a typical creation of the XVIth century, the fruit of the rational spirit of the Renaissance or the quest for a homogeneity comparable to that of the vocal ensemble. To these two types may be added the hybrid: the "broken consort" with a homogeneous base of instruments of the same family.

While the chamber sonorities of recorders, viols, lutes and spinets are suited to the ricercari which are very developed contrapuntally and still akin to the vocal style, cornets, bombardes and sackbuts are preferable for the outdoor dances. However a special case can be made for the cornet which goes as well with the chamber instruments as with the outdoor ones.

The astonishing richness of timbre which can result from these different combinations of instruments and voice demands careful consideration of the possibilities for articulation suggested by the technical and aesthetic information contained in the different treatises of the period. Research into the character of the different dances also implies a particular approach which comes through a direct acquaintance, musical and choreographical, with the steps and movements appropriate to each dance, an acquaintance which is necessary in order to achieve a performance which is satisfying both for the ear and for dancing. In this respect, each dance is preceded by a brief introduction which should set things up for the dancers so that they may start at the right time.

The last element to consider would be the search for an instrumental style which grew up through the art of improvising ornaments and diminutions, at a time, between 1450 and 1600, when one of the most remarkable developments in Western music occured: the progressive emancipation of the instrumental lanuage, freed from the limitations of the human voice. The improvisatory qualities, necessary to every professional performer in the XVIth century, presupposes a quite different approach to the function of the musician in an ensemble, a function very different from that prevailing in present-day instrumental groups which rarely permit free expression for the individual personality. The particular spirit of this Renaissance ensemble can be characterized as a fusion of different musical personalities in search of a common ideal: the blossoming of all the elements (historical, stylistic and creative) which give the music the vitality, freedom and freshness of an elusive musical destiny.

-Jordi Savall (translated by Frank Dobbins)

  Соисполнители :

Adrian Willaert (Composer)
Ariane Maurette (Viola Da Gamba)
Bruce Dickey (Cornet)
Christophe Coin (Viola Da Gamba)
Claude Gervaise (Composer)
Clement Janequin (Composer)
Francesco Antonio Costa (Composer)
Gabriel Garrido (Conductor)
Hieronimus Parabosco (Composer)
Julius Da Modena (Composer)
Montserrat Figueras (Soprano Voice)
Pierre Sandrin (Composer)
Roberto Gini (Viola Da Gamba)
Ton Koopman (Harpsichord)

№ п/п

Наименование трека



   1 Bassedanse 7 (Musique De Ioye)         0:03:10 Anonymous
   2 Tordion 8, From The Musique De Ioye         0:01:25 Anonymous
   3 Ta Bonne Grace         0:01:16 Jacobus Roquelay
   4 Bassedanse 1 'Ta Bonne Grace'         0:02:45 Anonymous
   5 Tordion 2         0:01:41 Anonymous
   6 Ricercare XIII         0:02:04 Julius Da Modena (aka Julio Segni)
   7 Ricercare XXII         0:04:04 -"-
   8 Ricercare XVI         0:02:33 -"-
   9 Ricercare V         0:02:06 -"-
   10 Il Estoit Une Fillette, Chanson For 4 Voices, M. 3 / 77         0:01:12 Clement Janequin (c.1485-1558)
   11 Pauane 13 'La Gaiette', From The Musique De Ioye         0:02:17 Anonymous
   12 Pauane 14, From The Musique De Ioye         0:03:02 -"-
   13 Gaillarde 15         0:01:07 Anonymous
   14 Ricercare XXIV, From The Musique De Ioye         0:01:42 Francesco Antonio Costa
   15 Ricercare XVII         0:02:37 Antonio De Cabezon
   16 Ricercare IV         0:03:16 Adrian Willaert (c.1490-1562)
   17 Helas Amy         0:01:44 Pierre Sandrin (c.1490-1566)
   18 Bassedanse 5 'Hellas Amy'         0:02:44 -"-
   19 Tordion 6, From The Musique De Ioye         0:01:11 Anonymous
   20 Pauane 11 'La Bataille', From The Musique De Ioye         0:02:24 Julius Da Modena (aka Julio Segni)
   21 Ricercare VIII         0:02:33 -"-
   22 Ricercare X         0:03:22 -"-
   23 Ricercare XIV 'Da Pacem Domine'         0:02:05 Girolamo Parabosco (1520/4-1557)
   24 Branle Simple 22         0:01:42 Claude Gervaise
   25 Branle De Bourgoigne 23, From The Musique De Ioye         0:01:41 -"-
   26 Branle De Bourgoigne 17, From The Musique De Ioye         0:01:57 -"-


 T   'щелкнуть' - переход к тексту композиции.

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