Описание CD

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  Исполнитель(и) :
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  Наименование CD :
   Gluckliche Hand, Variations For Orchestra, Verklarte Nacht

Год издания : 1993

Компания звукозаписи : Sony

Время звучания : 1:09:09

Код CD : SMK 48 464 (5 099704 846422)

  Комментарий (рецензия) :

CD, стоящие на полке рядом : Classics (Modern Classics)      

BBC Singers Singer, BBC Symphony Orchestra, New York Philharmonic Orchestra cond. Pierre Boulez

========= from the cover ==========

Schoenberg: Verklarte Nacht

Verklarte Nacht

Die Gluckliche Hand. Variations For Orchestra

("Счастливая рука") Драма с музыкой для хора и оркестра, op. 18 (1910/13)

The three works assembled here - all by a composer who may legitimately be regarded as the leading representative of "New Music" - provide an ideal insight into the processes which, in the years around the turn of the century, led to the breakdown of an antiquated musical grammar and to the development of a compositional technique independent of major and minor tonalities. The poem for strings Verklarte Nacht was written at the very end of the dying century - it was completed in December 1899 - and in terms of its outlook and compositional manner may be said to be late-Romantic in style. Die gluckliche Hand, described by its composer as a "drama with music", dates from the period between 1910 and 1913. In its use of free atonality it constitutes a no less characteristic contribution to musical expressionism than the "monodrama" Erwartung of 1909. The Variations for orchestra, finally, date from 1926-8 and are typical of Schoenberg's last creative phase, a phase which, best described as con-structivist, is chiefly characterized by the composer's deployment of a technique devised and defined by Schoenberg himself as a "method of composing with twelve notes which are related only to one another".

Verklarte Nacht - performed here not in the string sextet version but in Schoenberg's own arrangement for string orchestra - was inspired by a poem by Richard Dehmel, the structure and content of which provide the piece with its programmatical outlines. Central to both poem and composition are two main sections, the first of which represents a woman speaking, the second a man. These two main sections are linked together by a prelude, interlude and postlude, the whole mirroring the poet's concern with the woman's successful attempt to come to terms with her middle-class feelings of guilt - she has been made pregnant by a stranger whom she does not love - and with the man's unquestioning and supportive love - he affirms his love not only for the woman herself but also for the child she is carrying. The poem's general movement from darkness to light (it opens with the line "Two people are walking through the bare, cold grove" and closes with the words "Two people go through the tall, clear night") is reflected in the music by the brightening from the minor tonality of the beginning to the major tonality with which it concludes. The close relationship between music and text is further illustrated by the fact that the voice of the woman is represented by the violins, that of the man by the cellos. "Roman-tic tonal magic" can be heard whenever natural images such as moonlight and the starry heavens are mentioned in the poem.

It is difficult to imagine a starker contrast than that between the Romantic nocturne Verklarte Nacht and the expressionist drama Die gluckliche Hand. When the curtain rises on the opening scene, we find ourselves watching a scene like something out of a film by Alfred Hitchcock: "The stage is almost entirely dark. In front lies the man, face down. On his back crouches a cat-like, fantastic animal (hyena with enormous, bat-like wings) that seems to have sunk its teeth into his neck." Schoenberg and Hitchcock (in his film The Birds, for example) are both drawing on the same source here, namely, the psychoanalytical writings of Sigmund Freud that were coming into prominence around the turn of the century. One of Freud's most famous essays, The Interpretation of Dreams, had already appeared in Vienna in 1900, and when Schoenberg wrote Erwartung in 1909, Freud's studies on Creative Writers and Day-Dreaming and "Civilized" Sexual Morality and Modern Nervous Illness had just been published. Oneiric fantasies and sexual anxieties are also the theme of Die gluckliche Hand. The main character of the piece, described simply as "A Man", is confronted by two conflicting figures - "A Woman" and "A Gentleman" - who haunt him in his dreams. The man personifies the typical artist who, at war with himself, is answerable to his own genius alone. He is tormented by the fact that the woman attempts to lure him away from the path of high art while, at the same time, not only preventing him from satisfying his desires but giving herself instead to the gentleman. The man's inner voices -embodied by six female and six male soloists -reflect his desperate state, forcing him with ruthless implacability to admit that he has failed: "Can you not renounce? Never at last resign yourself? ... And you torment yourself! And know no peace! You poor fool!" The protagonist's overwrought nerves are mirrored in iridescent music that conjures up worlds of fantastical sound. Questions of dissonance and consonance, of tonality and atonality are altogether secondary to an aural experience that is tantamount to a psychological personality study.

The Variations for orchestra are not entirely devoid of fantastical aural images, but by 1928, following the catastrophe of the First World War and in the wake of a new emphasis on constructivism and objectivity, the composer's attitude towards his material had totally changed from that which had produced the expressionist drama Die gluckliche Hand, to say nothing of the Romantic tone-poem Verklarte Nacht. A clearly definable form, consisting of a twenty-four-bar theme and nine variations of more or less equal length, the whole framed by an Introduction and Finale, provides the solid foundations for a purely musical argument that fills out the round about twenty minutes of the piece's duration with highly organic structures.

This serial composition is a fine example of Schoenberg's demand that his dodecaphonic works be heard not from the perspective of twelve-note rows but - as in the music of earlier composers from Bach to Brahms - from the standpoint of the thematic fabric and the theme's expressive variations. By approaching the music in this way, the listener will discover that here too the musician reflects on music itself, an attitude apparent in the clearly audible quotations of the B-A-C-H motif (i.e. the notes B-flat, A, C and B) which the mature composer includes towards the end of the work as a homage to a master of Baroque music for whom he felt the greatest admiration.

- Peter Petersen (translation: 1993 Stewart Spencer)


Просветлённая ночь и Вариации для симфонического оркестра ор. 31.

Несколько слов про Die Glu"ckliche Hand: "Счастливая рука" (1913) - вторая после "Ожидания" (1909) опера Шёнберга, написанная в революционной манере атематизма венской школы, но можно рассматривать её всё ещё в русле "Песен Гурре", в качестве переходного сочинения, отмеченного влиянием символизма. По сути это экспрессионистская монодрама - cочинение насыщено психологическими экспериментами, ради которых создаются ситуации кошмара и ужаса, вместе с тем здесь присутствуют элементы пантомимы и светомузыкального синтеза, в частности применяется особая световая сценография, подчиненная музыке. Всем персонажам соответствуют лейттемы, лейттембры и лейтцвет. Так, Мужчине постоянно сопутствует тембр виолончели. Женщине - скрипки, флейты, арфы. В динамике освещения композитор использовал следующие цветотембровые параллели: желтый - труба, голубой - английский рожок, фиолетовый - кларнет, фагот и так далее. К чисто светомузыкальным приемам А.Шенберг обращается в кульминационный момент драмы, когда напряженность действия и экспрессионистской музыки достигает такого предела, что звуки как бы "выходят из себя" в область света. Это происходит в сцене бури. Логика соотношения цвета, тембров и эмоций, воплощенных в этом светомузыкальном эпизоде, созвучна системе цветотембровых представлений Кандинского. (Это понятно: они были дружны и духовно близки.) Буря в природе, накал человеческих эмоций сопровождаются звуковым и световым crescendo. В тембрах движение идет от скрипок и гобоев через кларнет, фагот, бубен, арфу к торжеству тромбонов и труб. Заканчивает эпизод умиротворяющий английский рожок. Соответственно и в цвете - от черного и коричневого через грязно-зеленый, фиолетовый, красный к оранжевому и желтому. Завершает световое crescendo мягкий голубой цвет 10). Шенбергу посчастливилось увидеть реализацию своего замысла - в 1924 году на сцене Венской народной оперы, в 1928-м - в Бреслау. А при подготовке берлинской постановки "Счастливой руки" он уже непосредственно вмешивается в работу художников и осветителей сцены.


  Соисполнители :

Siegmund Nimsgern (Vocals)

№ п/п

Наименование трека



   1 Scene 1         0:02:53 Die Gluckliche Hand, 1-act Drama, Op. 18
   2 Scene 2         0:05:40 -"-
   3 Scene 3. Kraftig Bewegt. Takt 89         0:02:54 -"-
   4 Scene 3. Viel Rascher. Allegro. Takt 126         0:02:04 -"-
   5 Scene 3. Massig Bewegt. Takt 166         0:02:09 -"-
   6 Scene 4         0:05:12 -"-
   7 Introduction. Massig, Ruhig         0:01:31 Variations For Orchestra, Op. 31
   8 Thema. Molto Moderato         0:01:01 -"-
   9 Variation I. Moderato         0:01:16 -"-
   10 Variation II. Langsam         0:01:31 -"-
   11 Variation III. Massig         0:00:41 -"-
   12 Variation IV. Walzertempo         0:01:20 -"-
   13 Variation V. Bewegt         0:01:48 -"-
   14 Variation VI. Andante         0:01:24 -"-
   15 Variation VII. Langsam         0:02:02 -"-
   16 Variation VIII. Sehr Rasch         0:00:37 -"-
   17 Variation IX. L'itesso Tempo; Aber Etwas Langsamer         0:00:58 -"-
   18 Finale. Massig Schnell         0:05:30 -"-
   19 Grave         0:06:30 Verklarte Nacht, For String Orchestra (arr. From String Sextet, Op.4)
   20 Molto Rallentando. Takt 100         0:06:22 -"-
   21 Pesante. Takt 201         0:02:26 -"-
   22 Adagio. Takt 229         0:09:23 -"-
   23 Adagio. Takt 370         0:03:56 -"-


 T   'щелкнуть' - переход к тексту композиции.

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Последние изменения в документе сделаны 20/10/2016 22:09:12

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