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  Исполнитель(и) :
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  Наименование CD :
   Lieder Ohne Worte



Год издания : 1997

Компания звукозаписи : ECM

Время звучания : 1:17:16

Код CD : ECM New Series 1618

  Комментарий (рецензия) :

CD, стоящие на полке рядом : Classics (Modern Classics)      

Lieder ohne Worte II (1988 - 1994)

fur Violine und Klavier

Sequenzen uber Johannes I, 32 (1962)

fur Harfe

Trema (1981/83)

Version fur Violine solo

Praludium, Arioso und Passagalia (1987)

fur Harfe

Elis (1961, revidiert 1966)

Drei Nachtstucke fur Klavier

Lieder ohne Worte I (1981/83)

fur Violine und Klavier

Recorded June 1996 at Radio DRS, Zurich

In the last decade the uniqueness of Holliger's compositions - for many years overshadowed by his reputation as a virtuoso oboist - has received overdue recognition with the awarding of many important international prizes (including Copenhegen's Leonie Sonning Music Award, the Frankfurt Music Award, the Art Award of the City of Basle, the Ernst von Siemens Music Prize etc). On Lieder ohne Worte the extreme demands of Holliger's music are well served by his harpist wife Ursula (for whom numerous composers, from Elliott Carter to Lutoslawski have also written pieces), pianist Thomas Larcher and violinist Thomas Zehetmair. Larcher and Zehetmair have worked extensively with Holliger, the latter recently premiering his Violin Concerto.

======

Heinz Holliger's sense of commitment links his activities as composer, virtuoso instrumentalist, conductor, scholar, teacher, and champion of new music. The antithesis of those composers who arbitrarily cut and shuffle styles in the interests of a riskless postmodernism, he has described music-making as "a physical necessity": "Those who can obtain peace of mind without this compulsion," he cautions, "should leave music to others." Holliger's compositions, in the words of Philippe Alb?ra, can "cross the internal frontiers which separate the reassuring world of good taste from the world governed by the violence of truth ... [Listening], we are shaken by a great force."

The album Lieder ohne Worte contrasts some of Heinz Holliger's earliest compositions with music from the 1980s and 90s. Of the earlier works, Elis was written in 1961 and the Sequenzen ?ber Johannes I, 32 in 1962: in the period that is, when Holliger was still studying composition, with Pierre Boulez in Basle. Trema is from 1981(by which time Holliger's compositional mastery was an acknowledged fact in new music circles), the Pr?ludium, Arioso und Passacaglia was written in 1987 and the two collections of Lieder ohne Worte are dated 1982-83 and 1985-94. In his liner notes to this disc, J?rg Stenzl observes that "the works written in the 80s present their own highly personal worlds, much more emphatically than the early chamber music. Frequently, too, they are connected to the performers for whom they were written in a highly intimate way; they reveal diary-like features. Like the text-based works since the Scardinelli cycle, these instrumental pieces are highly concrete, almost plastic music, music that has mastered a language as precise and clear as it is highly differentiated." Its precison does not mute its expressivity.

The sheer range of Holliger's endeavours - and the variety of instrumental forces employed in his compositions - has led to occasional critical misperceptions. "The variety involves the risk of being considered a Jack-of-all-trades," he admitted to writer Peter Fuhrmann in the period when he was working on the second set of Lieder ohne Worte. "While I was studying with Boulez I still felt quite overawed, even restricted, until I began drawing my own little aesthetic and stylistic circles and broadening them systematically - until they disappeared . (...) I am in the processof building up a musical cosmos of my own. Interconnections and strands help me there: for example, in my oboe etude Mehrkl?nge [see ECM New Series 1340] I had the idea of assigning multiple layers and different time levels to a single player. I carried this further in the String Quartet (1973) and returned to the technique eight years later in Trema. At the moment I'm intensely occupied with some of my earliest musical ideas."

Born in Langenthal, Switzerland, in 1939, Heinz Holliger studied both oboe and composition at the conservatories of Berne, Basle, and Paris. His first composition teacher was S?ndor Veress, who had taught both Kurt?g and Ligeti, and words Holliger has used in praise of Veress's music might be applied, with no loss of pertinence, to his own: "The precarious balance between complex, formally perfected composition and spontaneous forcefulness of expression has been achieved with seemingly effortless elegance". Recordings of Holliger performing and conducting Veress's composition were issued by ECM in 1995, and Lieder ohne Worte II begins with a dedication to Veress.

It was Holliger's mastery of the oboe that brought him his first professional breakthrough. First prizes at the international competitions at Geneva (1959) and Munich (1961) propelled him toward the concert and festival circuit; he has averaged a hundred concerts a year since the mid-1960s. His extraordinary prowess as an instrumentalist has prompted numerous composers, from Frank Martin to Stockhausen, from Ernst Krenek to Elliott Carter, to write pieces for him. Holliger's repertoire includes several hundred works from the Baroque to the avant-garde: he has been an innovator in both domains, playing improvised cadenzas in Baroque and classical concertos, and greatly expanding the vocabulary of the oboe in new music by the introduction of unorthodox playing techniques. For a long time, his stature as a virtuoso unjustly overshadowed his creative output as composer.

In the 1980s, however, the perspective began to shift as Holliger's music was performed beyond the specialist circles of Donaueschingen and Darmstadt and the like, and showered with international awards. (Holliger, in a typical move, passed on all monies from the Frankfurt Music Prize and the Danish Sonning Music Award to Greenpeace and the then-struggling Ensemble Modern, causes he considered more deserving. It was embarassing, he protested, to receive honours and large financial rewards for the privilege of being allowed to make music.) In 1991 Holliger received the Ernst von Siemens Music Award.

Heinz Holliger has published over sixty compositions since 1960 and although instrumental works predominate over his radical settings of, for example, H?lderlin (the monumental Scardinelli-Zyklus), Robert Walser (Beiseit) and Samuel Beckett (Come And Go), literature is often a vital impulse behind even the non-vocal pieces. Jarg Stenzl notes that Holliger "went to Boulez because he wanted to raise his musical language to the heights of the literature that fascinated him," and Ellis, subtitled "Three Night Pieces" sets out to transform poetry by Georg Trakl, whose verse was as important to the young Holliger as Halderlin's late work would be from 1975 onwards. Similarly, the Sequenzen uber Johannes I, 32 attempts to illuminate, by instrumental means only, the visionary power of the bible verse "I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove, and it abode upon him", testing thereby the resourcefulness of harpist Ursula Holliger.

Intensive experiments, between 1968 and 1973, with "sound-effects music" which abandoned "the aesthetics of pitch control" burned the need for an "absolute music" out of Holliger's system. Albara: "If Holliger has not adopted the 'zero degree' aesthetic of Stockhasen and Cage in the 50s, it is because he intends to take full account of that historical consciousness which causes one to cross the frozen surface layer of musical compositon and expression to reach the fire that feeds them." He works also with historical material, then, but in new ways. "Holliger is as far from historicism as he is from Postmodernism's self-service counter of musical history," says Stenzl. "He does not view 'old forms' with the distanced perspective of the historian, nor does he use the 'old' for its own sake, but rather as a means for a particular piece to speak in a certain way." The first set of Lieder ohne Worte alludes to Mendelssohn Bartholdy's "songs without texts or voice" of 1833 and in its first two songs "conceals distant, irretrievable memories of Romantic music." The second set makes references - few of them immediately evident to the casual listener - to Veress, Busoni, Purcell and Baroque laments. Baroque forms also determined the title of Holliger's second work for his wife Ursula's harp, the Praludium, Arioso und Passacaglia, written 25 years after the Sequenzen uber Johannes.

www.ecmrecords.com/Background/Background_1618.php

========= from the cover ==========

Heinz Holliger, Tone Poet

Heinz Holliger was seventeen when he first encountered the writings of Georg Trakl: "I identified strongly with his poetic language, so unlike any other poetry written in German." Trakl remained a primary focus in the work of the composer who, until about 1968, lived intensely in the poet's world. From the age of ten, however, it had been "self-evident" that Holliger was destined to be a musician. In addition to the oboe -which he had discovered almost accidentally from radio broadcasts and in the theatre of his Swiss home town of Langenthal - he also played piano, but found this more demanding. The oboe, he has noted retrospectively, "was easy". In high school vacation time, Holliger journeyed to Paris for oboe lessons with Pierre Pierlot. At the same time as he completed his graduating examination he also passed his test for the teaching certificate in oboe at the Bern Conservatory and completed studies in composition with Sandor Veress. At twenty, he won the first prize for oboe in the Geneva competition, winning again two years later in Munich. His first stage performances and recordings left no doubt that the oboe as a solo instrument had entered a new era with this young player. It must have been similar when the violinists Pietro Locatelli and, in the former's footsteps, Niccolo Paganini first stunned their audiences.

In Switzerland, the oboe virtuoso attracted attention with his own works and those written for him by others -Noctes for oboe and harpsichord (1961) by Klaus Huber, Passacaglia coneertarite (1961) by Sandor Veress, and the solo pieces of 1962 by Jacques Wildberger and Jurg Wyttenbach -while attending the composition courses offered by Pierre Boulez in Basel in 1961-62. His first works, orchestral songs on Trakl poems (1960) and chamber cantatas were in no way simply the music of a virtuoso, nor would his compositions become so in the future, for all their technical demands. Only with the passage of time would the paths he travelled and the experiences he gained leave unmistakable traces in his own compositions. Holliger's writing developed not out of his own virtuosity but rather out of Georg Trakl's poetry.

"I can't work on the basis of abstract methods, even though they fascinate me from a musical perspective; I always need a concrete reference", Holliger explained in a conversation with Philippe Albera, and he did not confine his need for "concrete references" to his own early, poetically-inspired work. These "concrete references" - then as now - are always the poetry of extreme situations: Trakl's verse and that of the young Swiss poets Alexander Xaver Gwerder and Heinz Weder who were close to him, immediately followed by the Gluhende Ratsel ("Ardent Enigma") of Nelly Sachs. From 1975, Holderlin's late work was central to his music, subsequently the writings of Samuel Beckett and, in 1990, Robert Walser were also crucial.

Holliger's distance with respect to the "abstract methods" of serial music is surprising in a composer who studied with Pierre Boulez and, even earlier, had learned from Sandor Veress to compose "highly ordered, very controlled music" with a vocabulary derived from Bartok. He went to Boulez because he wanted to raise his musical language to the heights of the literature that fascinated him. It should be capable of standing up to the "unheard-of claim of absoluteness" (Paul Celan) of a literature in which art is understood as lived. Celan's phrase "... go with your art into a corner of your own" sets the standard for both Holliger the composer and Holliger the performer. With this requirement, he understands music as a "biological phenomenon", as a composed "inverted mirror".

In 1950, Pierre Boulez broke radically with tradition to develop a rejuvenated music from the ground up as a "monde seriel" with internally coherent and rigorously serial works like Structures for two pianos and Le Marteau sans maftre. For Holliger, by contrast, music remains analogous to speech, and he does not compose abstract sound objects. Characteristically, he once remarked that music was perhaps his only means of approaching people. More than that, music is Holliger's own language, just as the spoken language was for a writer like Trakl or Celan. Thus, everything the musician Holliger undertakes, either as a performer or as a composer, stands under the sign of Celan's "claim of absoluteness". This existential, fundamental relationship to literature makes Holliger a tone poet in the literal sense. Indeed, he is also one when he plays oboe concertos by Mozart, Richard Strauss, and Elliott Carter.

For the precocious high school student, his "musical vocabulary" "lagged far behind his inner state". (The only partially published works of the not-yet-twenty-year-old put this strict self-criticism in perspective.) In a remarkably drew far-reaching consequences for composition from his rejection of "absolute music".

Holderlin in his tower in Tubingen, and subsequently-in Gesange der Fruhe ("Morning Songs" of 1987) -the connection between Schumann and Holderlin, and in 1995 in the Violin Concerto, the painter and violinist Louis Soutter: the choice of materials is in no way coincidental. In response to the extroverted explosions at the end of the sixties, he developed a "need for extreme concentration on strictly circumscribed material", a need to internalise as a "form of resistance", going into "a corner of one's own", in Celan's words. Holderlin, Schumann, Robert Walser, Soutter - all artists considered "insane" by their contemporaries, closed off in their own worlds where they were creatively unfettered -satisfied Holliger's need for "extreme concentration". This is paralleled by an increased interest in the biographies of these "outsiders": Scardanelli presents a phase in Holderlin's life, and the song cycle Beiseit (1990) traces Robert Wal-ser's innermost paths. In Gesange der Fruhe, Schumann and Holderlin are pervasive; as are Walser and Schumann in Beiseit. "I write music from the tower", the composer remarked recently.

Elis (1961) and Sequenzen uber Johannes I, 32 (1962) are separated by twenty years from Trema (1981), the two collections of Liederohne Worte ("Songs without Words", (1982-83 and 1985-93) and the harp piece Praludium, Arioso und Passacaglia (1987). These are the years of the revolt and the return "into the tower". The works written in the eighties present their own highly personal worlds, much more emphatically than the early chamber music did. Frequently, too, they are connected to the performers for whom they were written in a highly intimate way. They reveal diary-like features and were often composed very quickly. Like the text-based works since the Scardanelli cycle, these instrumental works are highly concrete, almost plastic music. Music that has mastered a language that is as precise and clear as it is highly differentiated. The title Trema - which was originally composed for solo viola in 1981, then rewritten for cello the same year and again for violin in 1983 - suggests a physical state, namely, trembling. The composer has described this state, achieved by means of precisely notated arpeggiando and tremolo - as a grid of sound superimposed on "a harmony that progresses at a very slow tempo".

The listener perceives these slow continuous transformations not as a process but as a highly agitated and hectic shimmering that is interspersed with heavy accents and has a high noise factor. This shimmering loses itself only at the very end, exhausted into a complete standstill "al niente". The piece has something "monomaniacal" to it, according to the composer. Trema can be heard as the musical portrait of something unnamed, whose raw, "tremblingly" hectic outward appearance conceals a cryptic, calmly flowing stream.

The title Vier Liederohne l/Vorfe("Four Songs without Words") recalls Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy who, beginning in 1833, wrote eight extraordinarily successful collections of lyrical piano pieces. They were "songs without texts or voice", as it were, character pieces to which he - in contrast to Schumann -only occasionally gave programmatic titles. Holliger's first volume of Lieder ohne Worte - of which the first three were written at the end of 1982, the fourth followed in December 1983 -also dispenses with poetic titles. Still, one hardly needs the performance direction in the third piece "violin: canta-bile e liberamente declamato" in order to recognise that Holliger took the name "song without words" quite literally. He wrote genuine songs in which the violin takes the place of the voice. There are no texts, because they have been completely transformed into music, and thus become dispensable. The four pieces are thoroughly "lyric" in tone, most of the time the dynamics are kept in the piano range, making for a music of the finest nuances and shadings, "tone poems" in the truest sense. They are unmistakably connected to each other and form a cycle of songs without words. As an introduction, a brief motto is heard: tremolo harmonics in the violin and a low B in the piano. The first song is also centred on B, as the second is on E - with extremely tight meshing of violin and piano. Both seem to conceal distant, irretrievable memories of Romantic music. This is contrasted by the hectic monologue of the third song, which is followed by the fourth as an "endgame". The music becomes increasingly noisy, breaking - here too -into fragments and fading into piano harmonics "al niente".

The second volume of Lieder ohne Worte was written over a longer period. The third piece, titled {...fern...) ("distant"), is dated "New York, November 1985". The Berceuse matinalewas written in 1987, and the introductory Fru'h-lingsliedi"Spring Song") was written in 1992 - both were "in memoriam" pieces. In 1993, the two Intermezzi were added. In Cologne in 1993, Thomas Zehetmair and Siegfried Mauser played these Lie-der ohne Worte for the first time as a work in six parts; only later was a fifth song, Flammen - Schnee ("Flames -Snow") from 1994, added to the cycle.

In the first volume of Lieder ohne Worte nothing could be inferred from the score about the hidden meanings. In the second collection, on the other hand, titles with private dedications give clues. The composer joined Fruh-lingslied {in memoriam Sandor Veress, t 4 March 1992) with a eulogy by the violinist Catrin Demenga. In the Intermezzi, which are reminiscent of a beetle scuttling in a box, the listener suspects there are allusions that only the dedicatees can know. In the case of the final Berceuse matinale, written "in memory of Gertrud Demenga", one thinks immediately of another berceuse that was written for a deceased mother: Ferruccio Busoni's Berceuse elegiaque of 1909. Holliger's Berceuse matinale is a passacaglia divided into four-bar units in "floating" three-quarter time. It also harbours recollections of Baroque laments, especially Dido's final song, the passacaglia "When I am laid in earth" from Purcell's Dido and Aeneas.

Baroque forms also determined the title of Holliger's second work for Ursula Holliger's harp: Praludium, Arioso und Passcaglia (1987), written twenty-five years after Sequenzen uber Johannes I, 32. The private dates mentioned in the dedication "for Ursula for 8.6. and 7.7." also play a structural role here, and of course the five main notes of the passacaglia theme (c - d - es [E-flat] - c - a) were not selected arbitrarily. Finally, this second harp piece refers directly to the first, Sequenzen. "It is important to make clear the independence of tempo and rhythm of both hands", the composer remarks about Praludium. This is the same independence between the left hand and the bow that is called for in the String Quartet and in Trema. If the Sequenzen alternated free and fixed tempos, then here the two hands seem to be a duet of two people, free and at the same time related to each other, oscillating ribbons of sound on the one side and a voice declaiming recitative on the other. It is precisely this connection with the sound of the harp that makes this Praludium seem like a modern "Prelude non mesure". The performance instruction "Very slowly (declaimed very freely and with expression)" for the central Arioso makes it clear that this middle movement is also to be understood as a "song without words". Beginning as a linear duet with various overlapping rhythms, the Arioso rises at the conclusion to a dynamic climax in the form of a seven-note chordal sequence. The concluding twenty-five-part Passacaglia is built on the sequence of notes c - d - es [E-flat]-c-a (though the order changes). Strict musical forms - the contrapuntal "art of the early Netherlanders" - have always played a large role in Holliger's music, for example, in the Scardanelii cycle. Still, Holliger is as far from histor-icism as he is from postmodernism's self-service counter of musical history. The composer Heinz Holliger does not view "old forms" with the distanced perspective of the historian. He does not use the "old" for its own sake but rather as a means for a particular piece to speak in a certain way.

For Holliger, music - his own as well as that written by others - is only thinkable if its many layers can be expressed and realised by a composing and performing tone poet.

-Jurg Stenzl


  Соисполнители :

Thomas Larcher (Piano)
Thomas Zehetmair (Violin)
Ursula Holliger (Harp)


№ п/п

Наименование трека

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   1 I Fruhlingslied         0:06:43 Lieder Ohne Worte II
   2 II Intermezzo I         0:01:34 -"-
   3 III (... Fern ...)         0:02:11 -"-
   4 IV Intermezzo II         0:01:16 -"-
   5 V (Flammen ... Schnee)         0:02:39 -"-
   6 VI (... Sam)         0:01:40 -"-
   7 VII Berceuse Matinale         0:06:15 -"-
   8 Sequenzen Uber Johannes I, 23 Fur Harfe         0:04:07  
   9 Trema         0:13:16 Version Fur Violine Solo
   10 I Praludium         0:06:29 Praludium, Arioso Und Passacaglia
   11 II Arioso         0:02:02 -"-
   12 III Passacaglia         0:04:57 -"-
   13 I         0:01:58 Elis: Drei Nachtstucke Fur Klavier
   14 II         0:02:28 -"-
   15 III         0:02:49 -"-
   16 I         0:02:43 Lieder Ohne Worte I
   17 II         0:05:42 -"-
   18 III         0:03:50 -"-
   19 IV         0:04:38 -"-

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 T   'щелкнуть' - переход к тексту композиции.

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