Описание CD

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  Исполнитель(и) :
   Various Artists  (Composer) , Luigi Ferdinando Tagliavini (Organ) , Liuwe Tamminga (Organ
◄◄◄        ►►►

  Наименование CD :
   Gli Organi Della Basilicca Di S. Petronio In Bologna - Vol. I

Год издания : 1991

Компания звукозаписи : Tactus

Время звучания : 1:13:28

Код CD : TC 460001

  Комментарий (рецензия) :

CD, стоящие на полке рядом : Classics (Organ & Harpsichord)      

Maestri Padani e Flamminghi

========= from the cover ==========

The Organs Of S. Petronio In Bologna

Paduan and Flemish masters

The golden carvings which decorate the case of Lorenzo da Prato's 15th-century organ in S. Petronio, the work of a French artisan, seem almost to illustrate visually the important role played at that time by the musical culture from "beyond the alps" in the Bolognese basilica. The characteristic timbre of this impressive instrument is well suited to the northern organ literature of the period, and indeed beginning in 1475. the first three organists to have filled the vaults of the gothic edifice with its music were of Burgundian, Navarrese and French origins, respectively. The repertoire represented here might serve almost as "provisions' for our journey through a century of trade and mutual influence which occurred between Italian and "ultramontane" organ music. It ranges from the golden age of the first great Italian organ school, the most significant beginnings of which took place on Emilian soil, to the years immediately following the construction of the second organ in S. Petronio.

The late gothic organ of Lorenzo is exceptionally appropriate to 16th-century music, thanks in part to the contribution made by the organ builders Giovanni Battista Facchetti (1531 land Givanni Cipri (1563). This instrument provides a sampling of virtually all the principal timbres offered by the contemporary school of organ building, of which it is today an unparalleled example, both for its size and its age: it is, in fact, both the oldest "20 foot" organ known to us, and the largest instrument to have independent registers. The sonority of its Principal stops is rich and full bodied, with doublings of the treble pipes of the Principale Contrabbasso (24) and Ottawa (6) Principals, and triplings of the 12' Principal. During the restoration of 1982. the historical mean-tone temperament was reestablished, and the organ is rare in its being equipped with extra keys at different pitches for G# and A , notes which in modern equal temperament would coincide. In addition, the exceptional range of the keyboard-4 octaves and a 3rd allows for playing both in 8' and 16' tessituras.

This double possibility was exploited in the powerful Ricercata by Claudio Veggio of Piacenza. This composition is to be found in the parish archive?) of Castell' Arquatoina manuscript which had hitherto strangely escaped the critical eye of specialists. The performance here is in fact based on an alternation of the two possible ways of playing the Ripieno. that is. using both the low 24 and the more sonorous and incisive 12* Principals. The work is toccata-like and improvisatory, typical of the archaic ricercare, and in this sense expresses the origin of the word itself: an extemporaneous ricerca or "search" conducted through improvisation on the instrument. In this work Veggio already emphasizes an admirable openings towards more contrapuntal and imitative elements. The wide range encompassed by this work, the richness of its virtuoso passages equally distributed between the two hands, and the full harmonies of its chordal sections (made all the more striking by the instrument's distinctive temporament) all testify to the artistic matin it) of this Emilian composer in the field of organ literature.

One sees an increase of these same contrapuntal and imitative elements in the Ricercate by the Modenese composers Jacopo Fogliano and Giulio Segni, both musicians active during the first half of the 16th century. The works of Fogliano are again to be found in the precious manuscripts from Castell' Arquato. and testify to the strong influence which sacred vocal polyphony had on this instrumental genre The music is notated in the Italian system of tablature, a term used here to indicate a manner of "tabulating (intavolare) or arranging the complex contrapuntal fabric of a polyphonic composition onto two staves. Fogliano. organist at the cathedral in Modena, alternates contrapuntal writing reminiscent of the motet with sections characterized by rapid scales or chordal passages. Segni, Fogliano's pupil and organist at St. Mark's in Venice, continues in this vein which, will become a general trend and manifest itself above all in the consummate and mature compositions of Girolaino Cavazzoni. Segni's Ricercate. among the first examples of lengthy instrumental works, develop to a greater extent diverse themes which differentiate the successive sections, foreseeing a practice which will be an established tradition in the music of Andrea Gabrieli. Claudio Merulo and their contemporaries. These works are found in the anthology Musica nova, printed in Venice in 1540. This collection which definitively champions the imitative ricercare consist of four separate part-books, a fact which testifies to the contrapuntal nature of the compositions. The anthology explicitly calls for the pieces to be played on the organ, thereby making a transcription into tablature obviously essential. The works of the Bolognese composer Marc Antonio Cavazzoni, a musician praised (together with Giulio Segni by Pietro Aretino for his abilities as a harpsichordist (in cimbalis bene sonantibus, Iulio de Mutina et Marcantonio). contribute significantly to the emancipation of instrumental genres from vocal models. Cavazzoni's chanson. Plus neregres, based on Josquin Desprez Plus nuts regrets, is not merely an enriched and ornamented transcription in tablature of the vocal original, but rather a complete reelaboration of the musical material.

The Intonazione del sesto tono attributed to Pietro Francese (perhaps Piero Lombarchion. organist at S. Petronio from 1529 to 1562 is interesting for a number of reasons. The manuscript, in Munich in which it is found contains useful information for establishing its approximate date (1549) and geographical origin (the Po Valley). It is both the oldest toccata with an intonazione like character, and the oldest composition known to us with explicit indications regarding an independent part for the pedal: "col pedal quelle [note] che son piu basse" ("with the pedal those notes which are lowest"). The Ricercar terzo by Girolamo Cavazzoni. Marc Antonio's son, is, on the other hand, solidly built upon nine distict themes corresponding to an equal number linked sections. Two of them written in strict imitative counterpoint, typical of the Flemish motet, frame a brief moment of improvisation, echoing the last legacy of a now-outdated formal structure.

Domenico Maria Ferrabosco. Bolognese composer and director of the chapel at S. Petronio from 1547 to 1551. was the author of a madrigal on the ballata by Boccaccio. Io mison giorinetta (from the ninth day of The Decameron), a work which enjoyed great success in the 16th and 17th centuries. Appearing in print in 1542 and reprinted in various anthologies, this madrigal was "parodied" by Palestrina in two masses, while Giovanni Maria Trabaci, Ascanio Mayone and other Neapolitan musicians composed versions for the keyboard. The one here in tablature, taken from the Castell' Arquato manuscript, is quite close to the vocal original, despite the addition of simple ornamentation.

Any study of Italian keyboard music and its stylistic development cannot fail to recognize in the music of Giovanni de Marque and Ercole Pasquini certain significant elements predating the organ writing of Frescobaldi. De Macque, a Flemish composer, was active in Naples between the end of the l6th and the beginning of the 17th centuries, while at the same time the Ferrarese Pasquini was writing in Rome. In particular, the harmonic experimentation present in the former compose's Consonanze stravaganti, and the latter's use of durezze (dissonances) and legature (suspensions), anticipate analogous practices found in the toccatas of Frescohnldi. This earlier music is thus already laden with meaning, its language replete with those "dolorous affects" which Frescobaldi will later employ in his Toccate per l'Elevazione in order to express the gravity of the sacrifice of the Eucharist. The toccatas of Pasquini. represented here by a short composition found in a manuscript in Ravenna, present other traces of originality, such as irregular melodic phrases and complex rhythmic figurations. The same may be said for de Macque's Capriccio sopra Re Fa Mi Sol which, despite the relative inexactness in the terminology applied to instrumental genres at this time, exploits some of the characteristics of the capricci of Frescobaldi. This is particularly visible in its use of sections corresponding to the various elaborations of the same thematic "subject", and the capricious and multiform variety of their character.

The Toccata of Tarquinio Merula (followed in the present recording by a brilliant Canzonajis of particular musicological interest This piece was just recently discovered by the Swiss scholar Francois Seydoux in the course of his research conducted in the archives of Soleure, and it enriches our knowledge of the keyboard music of this composer from Busseto. It especially sheds light on Merula's toccata style, of which until now only one example was known, and on his chromatic writing. The final section of the Soleure toccata, bearing the indication genus chromaticum, joins the composer's two other chromatic works (Sonata cromatica and Capriccio cromatico), to form a virtual triptych in which diverse aspects of chromaticism are explored. The tension created in such pieces by the successive alternation of minor (chromatic and major (diatonic) semitones - a tension which would be completely annulled by equal temperament - is instead highlighted by meantone temperament The organ built by Baldassarre Malamini in 1596 in front of the Lorenzo da Prato organ is the ideal instrument on which to play this second group of compositions, corresponding to the repertoire of the late l6th and early 17th centuries. Its fundamental appearance is modelled on the earlier organ, and it is capable of producing all of those principal sonorities which will heroine the basis of classic Italian organ building until the l9th century. Its construction was ordered by the provosts of the vestry-board (Fabbriceria) of S. Petronio, for the purpose of performing music for double choirs, as is specifically indicated in the relative resolution: "quod possint cum duobus organis fieri concertus et chori ac musica dupplex et responsiva ac alternativa. During the years immediately preceding and following 15%, in fact, "musica spezzata "flourished in Bolognese circles, and it was here that some of the most represetative works dedicated to this genre were produced. The music for so-called "cori spezzati". characterized by the use of two or more ensembles playing in dialogue at some distance from each oher, was derived from the ancient antiphonal practice of choral liturgy, and it was particularly suitable to large and resonant spaces such as S. Petronio. The Bolognese basilica thus followed the example set by S. Marks in Venice, where this repertoire enjoyed an extraordinary early popularity' - already by the mid-16th century - drawing inspiration from an architecture which easily allowed for the placement of multiple choirs in different spaces. A few important examples of the vocal and instrumental repertoire for double choirs from Emilia are played here exclusively on the two organs. These versions in tablature thus encapsulate the contrapuntal texture of canzonas by Frescobaldi and Banchieri, toccatas by the Bolognese composer Aurelio Bonelli, and a motet by Lucio Barbieri (organist at S. Petronio). This manner of performance follows a practice documented above all by the large number of French chansons which have come down to us in a version for keyboard, often embellished with divisions and passaggi. It is up to these organs to bring out the symmetries, echoes and contrasts suggested by the unique compositional style, a task made possible by the vast variety of sonorities available, and exploited in the repertoire for single organ as well. It is in particular the Flutes which express the vivacious lightness of the canzonas. the Principals which confer weight to the imitative Ricercaru the clear Ripieni which bring out the solemnity of the improvisatory Ricercate, and the diaphanous timbre of the Voce Umana which highlights the chromaticism of the Consonanze stravaganti. (This last stop is a classic one dispite its having been added to the Malamini organ in the early 19th century, utilizing 18th century pipes).

A final aspect of the music performed in S. Petronio merits comment: the unique prominence given to the rests and "caesuras"; whereby these "voids" are filled by the surprising and evocative reverberation of the basilica, favoring certain harmonics such as the pure major third.

-Paolo Da Col (translation: Candace Smith)

  Соисполнители :

Adriano Banchieri (Composer)
Aurelio Bonelli (Composer)
Claudio Veggio (Composer)
Domenico M. Ferrabosco (Composer)
Ercole Pasquini (Composer)
Giovanni De Macque (Composer)
Girolamo Cavazzoni (Composer)
Girolamo Frescobaldi (Composer)
Guilo Segni (Composer)
Jacopo Fogliano (Composer)
Lucio Barbieri (Composer)
M. Antonio Cavazzoni (Composer)
Pietro Francese (Composer)
Tarquinio Merula (Composer)

№ п/п

Наименование трека



   1 Toccata 'Cleopatra' A 8         0:02:59 Aurelio Bonelli
   2 Ricercata Per b Quadro Del I Tono         0:05:48 Claudio Veggio
   3 Ricercata I         0:01:51 Jacopo Fogliano
   4 Ricercata II         0:02:11 -"-
   5 Ricercare VI         0:03:49 Guilo Segni
   6 Ricercare XI         0:02:24 -"-
   7 Mottetto 'Laudans Exultet' A 8         0:04:13 Lucio Barbieri
   8 Capriccio Sopra Re Fa Mi Sol         0:05:40 Giovanni De Macque
   9 Consonanze Stravaganti         0:03:07 -"-
   10 Canzon Francese 'La Carissima' A 8         0:02:43 Adriano Banchieri
   11 Intonazione Del VI Tono         0:01:10 Pietro Francese
   12 Plus Ne Regres         0:04:03 M. Antonio Cavazzoni
   13 Ricercar Terzo         0:06:34 Girolamo Cavazzoni
   14 Io Mi Son Giovinetta, Intavolato         0:02:35 Domenico M. Ferrabosco
   15 Canzon A 8         0:03:07 Girolamo Frescobaldi
   16 Toccata         0:02:16 Ercole Pasquini
   17 Durezze         0:04:04 -"-
   18 Canzona         0:03:35 -"-
   19 Toccata & Genus Cromaticum Del I Tono         0:05:17 Tarquinio Merula
   20 Canzona         0:01:54 -"-
   21 Toccata 'Athalanta' A 8         0:04:05 Aurelio Bonelli


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