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  Наименование CD :
   Missa 'Cum Iocunditate'. Motets



Год издания : 1992

Компания звукозаписи : EMI Reflexe

Время звучания : 1:02:25

Код CD : EMI 54082 2

  Комментарий (рецензия) :

CD, стоящие на полке рядом : Sacred Music (Master Works)      

========= from the cover ==========

Pierre de la Rue:

Missa: Cum iocunditate and motets

Pierre de la Rue was born c. 1460, possibly at Tournai, the son of Jehan de la Rue who was a trumpeter at Philip the Good's Burgundian court. The first reference we have to Pierre is as a tenor at Siena Cathedral c. 1482-85. From 1489-92 he is listed as a singer at s-Hertogenbosch Cathedral, and by 1492 he was a member of Maximilian's Burgundian Court Chapel, passing into the service of Maximilian's son. Philip the Handsome, when the young man was declared of age in 1493. In 1496. Philip married Juana of Castile, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, and la Rue travelled twice with the court to Spain, the first visit in 1501-02. the second in 1506 during which Philip died unexpectedly at Burgos. La Rue seems to have stayed in Juana's service in Spain for as long as two years before returning to Malines (Mechelen) as temporary head of the future Charles V's Chapel, organized for the boy Archduke by his guardian and regent. Philip's sister. Marguerite of Austria. When Charles was declared of age in 1515. he moved his court to Brussels, but soon thereafter la Rue retired to Courtrai (Kortrijk) where he had held a canonry at the church of Notre Dame since 1501. He died there on November 20. 1518. having apparently arranged to be buried in the Chapel of St. Catherine, a saint for whom he may have conceived a particular affection, since her birthplace and shrine were less than 200 metres from the Cathedral in Siena where he had been a singer as a young man.

Pierre de la Rue's main patron and protector during the latter part of his life was Marguerite of Austria (1480-1530). So-called as daughter of the Hapsburg Emperor Maximilian, she was anything but Austrian by residence and acculturation. Raised at the court of France as the intended bride of the future Charles VIII, she remained hostage there until 1493 after her repudiation and the consequent falling-out between Charles and Maximilian. After continuing her education at her brother's court in Malines. she married Juan of Castile (brother of Juana) in 1497, but he died the following year (as, ironically, did Charles VIII). In 1501, she married Philibert of Savoy, but he died in 1504. After her brother's death in September 1506, she returned the next year to Malines as guardian of his children and regent of the Netherlands.

Marguerites famous if justifiable melancholy did not prevent her from being a capable administrator for her nephew and, in fact, he re-appointed her as regent in the Netherlands not long after attaining his majority in 1515. Nor did it prevent her from being an avid patron of arts and letters, employing among others beside Pierre de la Rue. the musicians Henry Bredemers and Marbriano de Orto, the poet Jean Lemaire de Beiges, the sculptor Conrad Meyt of Worms, the illuminator Gerard Horenbout. and the superlative music scribes Martin Bourgeois and Petrus Alamire. Not surprisingly, it is in manuscripts copied by these two scribes and their associates that we find the best readings of virtually all of la Rue's compositions.

Perhaps the earliest of the works recorded here is the Missa: Cum iocunditate, which may date from the late 1480s. It uses a six-note opening fragment from an antiphon for the Nativity of the Virgin (sol mi sol la sol sol) as an ostinato in the tenor voice. In the course of the mass, the motive receives a total of 98 repetitions by the tenor at one or the other of two pitch levels a fifth apart, as well as numerous brief allusions on various pitches in the other voices. A four-voice texture prevails, except in the Credo (five voices) which is also exceptional as the only place where the tenor is allowed to paraphrase the entire chant, instead of just the opening motive. (Another curious if somewhat irreverent detail concerning the Credo is that the bass voice begins with an almost perfect quotation from a well-known American children's tune for the Easter season. ) A work of enormous popularity, judging by the number of its sources, perhaps the biggest surprise is that the opening bears a striking resemblance to Palestrina's Vent sponsa Christi motet (pub. 1563) and the Kyrie from the mass of the same name, both based on a chant with strong similarities to the Cum iocunditate antiphon. It may be that Palestrina somehow had seen or heard this mass by la Rue. or alternatively, that both composers happened independently on the best imitative unfolding of the same motive. In any case, it shows the durability of 15th-century Franco-Flemish contrapuntal procedures well into the 16th century.

There are two other Marian works recorded here but they could hardly be more dissimilar. Ave Regina celorum has a texture closer than usual to the works of la Rues contemporaries, notably Heinrich Isaac, whom la Rue probably met at Innsbruck in 1503. The graceful, singable lines and facile counterpoint are typical of Isaac's work. One of the earliest sources for this piece is a manuscript copied ca. 1516-22 for Philip and Marguerite's sister-in-law, Catherine of Aragon, and her husband. Henry VIII of England. The other Marian work, Gaude virgo, survives uniquely in the only manuscript known to have been copied specifically for Philip's court (Brussels, Bibliotheque Royale. MS 9126). probably in 1505. The texture is characterized by a superabundance of activity, leading up to an extraordinary ecstasy of ostinato figuration at venerans in gloria' and, after a return to more measured counterpoint, culminating in a riotous triplemeter close.

A more complete contrast in texture cannot be imagined than O salutaris Hostia, originally written as a substitute for the Osanna of the Missa de Sancta Anna but excerpted as a separate work in at least one manuscript copied by Alamire. It is possible that la Rue intended this as a kind of trope (like the famous Alle- psallite cum -luya) where the listener hears the first two syllables and confidently expects the Osanna as usual. We might say here that la Rue took the '-anna' out of the movement, and Alamire took the movement out of the Anna' In any case, its starkly simple chordal texture, sustained for the entire first half of the work, has few parallels in sacred works of this time.

Another unusual effort is Vexilla Regis/Passio Domini - unusual not only because it uses two borrowed melodies and a polytextual idiom long out of fashion, but because one of the cantus firmi is a reciting tone for the gospel with many repeated pitches. Venantius Fortunatus' hymn. Vexilla Regis, appears quite plainly in the top voice while one of the middle voices presents two lines spoken by the Evangelist in the Passion according to Saint Matthew, then a line from Jesus and another line from the Evangelist, all widely scattered in the gospel account and all delivered basically on recitation formulas a fifth apart, as was customary in chant Presumably, the work has some connection to Palm Sunday, since the Passion story from Matthew is the gospel and Vexilla Regis is the hymn at Vespers for that day. The earliest source is a manuscript copied c. l 500 in Savoy and brought by Marguerite to Malines in 1507.

A more direct connection with Marguerite might be surmised for the motets Delicta juventutis and Considers Israel. The first is clearly a funeral motet for Philip, since the newly written text mentions him just before the end. This invites the supposition that it may have been written for the memorial service organized by Marguerite at St. Rombaut in Malines in July 1507, just as she was beginning to reorganize the Burgundian Chapel. Even though la Rue was still in Spain, he would have had plenty of time to contribute this lament, and as the leading court composer, might have been expected to do so. The work is characterized by a doleful Phrygian modality, with frequent use of a short descending melodic figure that creates many pungent dissonances in close harmony. Considera Israel is a setting of the biblical lament of David on the deaths of Saul and Jonathan. It is a long, sectional work of great gravity in which each of the two middle sections, perhaps symbolically, omits one voice: the top voice in the second section and the tenor in the third. (Isaac used a similar technique in his funeral motet for Lorenzo de' Medici of 1492, Quis dabit, where one of the sections lacks a voice and is explicitly marked 'Laurus tacet'. ) Especially poignant here is the fourth and final section, Doleo super te, frater mi Jonatha, the brother imagery of which seems to have had special resonance with Marguerite. She caused it to be excerpted and copied c. 1516-23 into her so-called 'Chanson Album' (Brussels, Bibliotheque Royale. MS 228) and furthermore used virtually the identical text phrase in a poem she herself wrote for Philip, preserved in an anonymous musical setting in the same manuscript (Se ye soupire/Ecce iterum).

That work was of the unusual genre, the motet-chanson, for which the two most important sources are Marguerite's Chanson Album and the Basevi Codex, copied c. 1508 by the Netherlands court scribe Martin Bourgeois. The latter is the sole surviving source for la Rue's motet-chanson Plorer, gemier/Requiem, another work with funerary overtones. For the first of the two sections, the tenor and bass voices present the opening of the famous Requiem Introit in a kind of loose canon, a fourth apart. Simultaneously, the upper parts have a plaintive French text delivered in long, sweeping musical phrases. There follows a closing section in triple meter which has had to be reconstructed in the spirit of the original for this recording since it is imperfectly preserved in the manuscript: the text, while clearly the same in all voices in this second section, is lacking after the first three words, and a portion of the altus part seems to be missing near the end. Motet-chansons tend to be either rondeaux or bergerettes, suggesting that even more of the original text has disappeared, but at least we are able to hear this exquisite little work sung, probably for the first time in centuries. Especially notable is the dynamic ostinato in close imitation which closes the work, a Brumelesque effect [Antoine Brumel, 1460-1515] which finds less dramatic echoes in the endings of Ave Regina celorum, and even O salutaris Hostia.

Pierre de la Rue, like Ockeghem and Isaac among the many great Franco-Flemish composers of the era, still lacks a complete edition of his works. Not surprisingly, his representation on disc today is far below what he deserves and. in fact, is confined almost exclusively to his extraordinary Requiem. As heard in the selections recorded here, his voice is less clear, less rhetorical than Josqum's, and yet it speaks with great genius and originality. It is also, as these works repeatedly reveal, an essentially francophone voice, reflecting the milieu of the court for which he worked.

-Ross W. Duffin, 1992


  Соисполнители :

David James (Countertenor Voice)
John Potter (Tenor Voice)
Rogers Covey-Crump (Tenor Voice)


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   1 Gaude Virgo         0:07:29  
   2 Vexilla Regis / Passio Domini         0:01:57  
   3 Plorer, Gemer / Requiem         0:02:29  
   4 Considera Israel         0:10:56  
   5 I. Kyrie         0:02:56 Missa 'Cum Iocunditate'
   6 II. Gloria         0:04:37 -"-
   7 III. Credo         0:06:29 -"-
   8 IV. Sanctus         0:06:08 -"-
   9 V. Agnus Dei         0:05:31 -"-
   10 O Salutaris Hostia         0:01:46  
   11 Ave Regina Coelorum         0:02:58  
   12 Delicta Juventutis         0:09:08  

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