Symphony No. 10 In E Minor, Op. 93
Berliner Philharmoniker, Herbert Von Karajan
This was Shostakovich's first symphony in eight years, and the gap between this and the 1945 Ninth owed nothing to a lack of inspiration in the genre. In 1948, Shostakovich, Prokofiev, Khachaturian, and other noted Soviet composers were censured for writing what party censors called "formalistic" music, a code word for dissonance and the expression of negative emotions or cynicism. Of course, examined against such vague and, therefore, potentially all-inclusive standards, virtually any composition could be vulnerable to attack, and many of Shostakovich's were singled out. After January 1948, most Soviet composers were simply unsure of what was safe to write. Shostakovich turned to writing patriotic bombast like the choral work Song of the Forests (1949), the cantata The Sun Shines on Our Motherland (1952), as well as vapid film scores like that for the 1950 release The Fall of Berlin.
On March 5, 1953, Stalin died. The stringent policies in the arts loosened somewhat in the aftermath of the dictator's passing, and Shostakovich seized the opportunity to write a large symphony, not least because he could satirize Stalin in it. In fact, the second movement is said to be a depiction of the Soviet tyrant. The music in this Allegro is angry and intense, but also quite Russian. Certainly, it can be heard as austere and hostile, sinister and threatening, thereby painting an effective and credible portrait of Stalin, but it might also express anxiety and fear, emotions hardly new to Shostakovich. Thus, the "Stalin" interpretation of this movement, while quite possibly valid, is not fully convincing, much less verifiable.
The Symphony No. 10 opens up with a Moderato movement that is nearly as long as the ensuing three movements combined. The mood is dark and brooding and the structure is not unlike that of the Eighth's opening section: there is an introductory theme, followed by two "main" themes. Here, the second of those is faster than its counterpart in the Eighth, and while the atmosphere is intense in the exposition and development section, there is a relaxation in intensity in the recapitulation and coda, where the Eighth remains mired in darkness.
As suggested above, the second movement is a biting, sinister piece. It is followed by an Allegretto of decidedly Russian character, whose mood brightens somewhat, especially in the middle section. This movement is notable because it is the first time that Shostakovich used his personal motto, D - E flat - C - B, which, via German transliteration, represents his initials, DSCH. This motif would appear in numerous subsequent works by the composer, like the Violin Concerto No. 1 (1947-48; rev. 1955) and his popular String Quartet No. 8 (1961).
The finale starts off with an Andante that seems mired in a slow-motion haze. Suddenly the mood turns joyous and playful, lively and colorful. An austere middle section recalls the opening gloom, but the cheerful music returns and the symphony ends in a blaze of ecstatic joy. The Symphony No. 10 was premiered in Leningrad on December 17, 1953, under the baton of Yevgeny Mravinsky. It has become, with the Symphony No. 5, Shostakovich's most often performed and recorded symphony.
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Originally the young Herbert von Karajan wanted to become an engineer and had already been admitted to the Technische Hochschule (Technical University) in Vienna. Things turned out rather differently - music became his career, but a fascination with technical innovations, and with how they could be developed and exploited, was to persist throughout his life. His passion for fast cars and planes is well known. Yet he was never attracted merely by technology for its own sake. It was the application of technology in human endeavours that interested him - it was in this sense that he put it at the service of his own life's work. His recordings, spanning more than 50 years, trace a history of the medium's technical evolution. Karajan was unique in his commitment to new media and their potential in realizing artistic objectives. Deutsche Grammophon was not one of the first companies to put stereophonic recordings on the market. But at the end of the 1950s stereo records appeared under the Yellow Label, bypassing the new medium's teething period and creating a technological sensation.
This was not the least important factor prompting Karajan to return to the company where 20 years earlier he had made his first recordings. Another 20 years later the magic word "digital" was being bandied about. Even "insiders" needed to be put in the picture. Herbert von Karajan, however, was already there ("anything else is gaslight") and became a champion of this innovation from its very inception.
The new compact disc was still on the horizon when Karajan urged his record company henceforth to utilize only digital means in making his recordings. In 1980 Karajan's Magic Flute became the first Deutsche Grammophon digital production to be released. Then in quick succession - a sort of race against time - came new recordings of "his repertoire", often Karajan's third or fourth version of a work, in order to preserve his music-making for the future, through state-of-the-art technology. He was realistic enough to know that those pioneering stages would be followed by still further technical development. And it was characteristic of his belief in progress that the later perfection of the process should be turned to the benefit of recordings from the early digital period. His vision has come to pass.
Under the personal supervision of Karajan's technical advisers and sanctioned by the administrators of his artistic legacy, recordings he made beginning in 1980 have been refurbished using the latest technology. All those who participated in this task did so in the conviction of having fulfilled the great conductor's intentions.
Dmitri Shostakovich Symphony No. 10
When Shostakovich composed his Tenth Symphony in 1953, a decade or so had gone by since he had last tackled a symphonic structure, his Ninth Symphony having been written in 1945 at the end of the war, his even more Large scale Eighth Symphony in 1943. The Tenth was also the first substantial orchestral piece to emerge from the Soviet Union in the freer cultural climate heralded by Stalin's death in the spring of 1953. As such, its first performance (on 17 December 1953, in Leningrad) attracted particular attention in official and musicological circles, and the symphony became the subject of an animated three-day debate (on 29 and 30 March, and 5 April 1954) at the Moscow branch of the Union of Soviet Composers. Some commentators, regarding the symphony as "non-realistic" music, condemned its pervading aura of pessimism; others stressed that Soviet composers now had the right to be guided by their own artistic instincts, something that in the dark years of Stalin's dictatorship had barely been possible, though within months of his death the Party newspaper Pravda had been urging artists to strive for "independence, courage and experimentation". Amid these conflicting opinions of the Tenth Symphony, the young composer Andrey Volkonsky hit on an apt, compromise description: an "optimistic tragedy". It is the first three movements particularly that lend the symphony its overwhelming sense of tragedy. The opening Moderate an intense, broadly conceived movement with its long-breathed, powerfully lyrical lines and dark orchestral colouring, is a study in deep introspection - a mood not unfamiliar from Shostakovich's earlier music but certainly one he was to explore even more earnestly in his later symphonies, in some of the quartets and in his spare, despairing song cycles. This unrelieved gravity colours the whole work, though in the two succeeding movements he explores contrasting facets of it: the Scherzo, for example, is an expression of anger, brutal and savage in its gestures, rhythmically incisive and with inexorable drive; the third movement, on the other hand, is more reflective, more wistful in its melancholy. It is in this third movement - in the muscular waltz that is a central feature - that Shostakovich quotes his musical monogram, DSCH (the notes D, E flat, C and B natural), derived from the German transliteration of his name, Dmitri SCHostakowitsch. Aside from the clear, personal significance that this motto held for Shostakovich, the four notes happen to have a distinctive melodic shape and an implied ambiguity of harmony that render them highly fruitful as a compositional seed. The motif is used prominently in some other works - in the scherzo of the First Violin Concerto (1947-8, 1955) and in the Eighth (the so-called "Autobiographical") String Quartet (1961); and Shostakovich referred to it again in his Fifteenth Symphony (1971), though here it is more discernible to the eye than to the ear. The DSCH motif recurs, too, at the powerful climax to the finale of the Tenth Symphony, a movement which, after the slow, brooding introduction, strikes an attitude of fresh optimism that has led some critics to regard it as being out of place in the work as a whole. Yet beneath the bright E major tonality and the playful woodwind-scales, the jaunty tunes and the bustling strings, there is still an inescapable, grim power, a feeling of tension that is at once unsettling and dramatic in its impact.
Симфония № 10
Symphony 10 др. исполнение
Symphony 10 др. исполнение
Симфония № 10 e-moll, op.93 (1953). Премьера - 17 декабря 1953, Ленинград, Большой зал филармонии. Оркестр Ленинградской филармонии, дирижёр Е. Мравинский
Симфония № 10 ми минор, соч. 93 - симфония Дмитрия Шостаковича впервые исполненная Ленинградским филармоническим оркестром под управлением Евгения Мравинского 17 декабря 1953 года. Неясно, когда она написана: в соответствии с письмами композитора - в период между июлем и октябрем 1953 года, но Татьяна Николаева заявляла, что она была завершена в 1951 году. Эскизы некоторых материалов указывают на 1946 год. Десятая симфония была написана через восемь лет после предыдущей вследствие опалы композитора, в частности антиформалистских чисток 1948 года.
The Symphony No. 10 in E minor (Op. 93) by Dmitri Shostakovich was premiered by the Leningrad Philharmonic Orchestra under Yevgeny Mravinsky on 17 December 1953, following the death of Joseph Stalin in March of that year. It is not clear when it was written: according to the composer's letters composition was between July and October 1953, but Tatiana Nikolayeva stated that it was completed in 1951. Sketches for some of the material date from 1946.