Описание CD

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  Исполнитель(и) :
   Cavalli, Francesco  (Composer) , Rebeschini Carlo (Conductor
◄◄◄        ►►►

  Наименование CD :
   Messa Concertata

Год издания : 1990/1992

Компания звукозаписи : Electra, Rivo Alto

Время звучания : 41:41

Код CD : CRR 8905

  Комментарий (рецензия) :

CD, стоящие на полке рядом : Sacred Music (Master Works)      

Musica e Musei

Ensemble Sine Nomine - Carlo Rebeschini

========= from the cover ==========

Messer Francesco Caletto called Cavalli, just turned fourteen years old, arrived in Venice in 1616 and was engaged as a chorister in St. Mark's Chapel for 80 ducats, which rose to 140 in 1639 when he was appointed second organist of the ducal basilica after having played the organ for the church of Saints John and Paul. Cavalli soon made himself known in Venice not only for his prowess as a chorister and organist but also for the "exquisiteness of his famous compositions". Perhaps because of his "humble and solitary" character, however, he did not have them printed, something which G.B. Volpi instead hoped for in his dedication to Cavalli in the Terzo Libro del Madrigali by G. Rovetta (1645). Chorister, organist and composer, Cavalli was a well-known figure in the Venetian musical world, confirmed by the fact that he was frequently commissioned to write music for liturgical and commemorative events: on January 25 1660, the French ambassador to Venice had a High Messa and Te Deum by Cavalli performed in the church of St. John and Paul to celebrate the universal peace of the Pyrenees. On this occasion Cavalli was defined as "le premier homme d'ltalie dans son art". The publisher Alessandro Vincenti convinced him to entrust a mixed series of compositions destined for the church to be printed. The collection came out in 1656 entitled: MUSICHE SACRE CONCERNENTI Messa, e Salmi Concertati con Istromenti Imni Antifone et Senate, a Due, 3,4,5,6,8,10,12 Voci. So, like the Selva morale et spirituale by Claudio Monteverdi, this collection offered all the material needed by every Chapel Master who had to "prepare" a solemn Vespers or a High Mass. In the seventeenth century the presence of music was established in relation to the solemnity of the feast-day: the most important liturgical and Venetian feast-days - in the presence of the Doge and the Republican Senate, plus foreign ambassadors and rulers -required the presence of all chapel musicians, i.e. choristers and instrumentalists, so that the "High Mass" should have "continuous rare and select music". When Claudio Monteverdi arrived in Venice in 1613 as Chapel Master in St. Mark's, he set about engaging talented choristers, amongst whom was Cavalli, and making sure that instrumentalists would be paid regularly. In 1616 St. Mark's Chapel had 24 choristers, 16 instrumentalists, 2 organists, one master (Monteverdi) and one assistant (Marc'Antonio Negri). In the index, which shows the whole contents of the collection of 1656 by Francesco Cavalli, one can read: Messa a 8 voci, Concertata con due Violini, e Violoncino, Ripieni, et altri Strumenti, se place. This title contains the features of a particular compositional style adopted by Cavalli, which is based on the great St. Mark's tradition of the Gabrielis and the dictates of the Seconda Pratica left by Monteverdi as a probable teaching method as well as his published works, not least the Selva in 1640. The term Messa concertata appears around 1614 and defines a composition with instrumental parts independent of the basso continuo and solovoices in contrast to tutti. The Messa Concertata by Cavalli on the one hand follows the tradition of the cori spezzati, i.e. dividing the chorus into two parts (4+4 voices each) with the addition of two violin parts and one "violoncino" (cello) and indicates the possibility of inserting trombones or other instruments ad libitum, according to the instrumental custom of St. Mark's. On the other liand the double chorus in Cavalli's work does not maintain the St. Mark's tradition, instead it sets the tone-colour contrast of the instruments against the different vocal parts. With Cavalli every chorus is a vocal quartet with soprano, alto, tenor and bass plus instruments: the play of contrasts is based on an alternation of duets or short solo against a single chorus or tutti. The Messa opens with a Sinfonia followed by the Kyrie with all the solemnity of the liturgy: the voices enter on a pronounced rythm in a "pompous" chordal pattern, seeming to take us back to the old antiphonal dimension of this invocation. However, with the "Christe eleison" this "old solidity" is broken in favour of a typical concertato style, with short phrases rebounding from one voice to the other. The second "Kyrie" consists of rich counterpuntal writing with the single voices taking up a brilliant thematic cue: Cavalli constructs the fugue of the "in gloria Dei Patri" (Gloria) and the "Amen" at the end of the Credo in a similar way. The latter and the Gloria are subdivided into different sections which reflect a precise codified distribution: the voices extend in the alternating soli and tutti, according to indications in the text, so that delicate tones are used for the "Qui tollis" and energetic ones for the "Quoniam Tu solus", featuring a framework of instrumental ritornelli. There are naturally moments in which Cavalli pours into this solid structure all the human emotions, as can be felt in the "madrigalism" which amplifies the word "descendit", repeatedly intoned by the soloist and on which the homorythmic episode of the "Et incarnatus" (Credo) opens. From the mystery of the incarnation to the pain of the crucifixion, which Cavalli effectively portrays with a delicate duet, where the voices of the two sopranos rest on a harmony of diminished sevenths, traditionally used for dramatic emphasis of a text. Cavalli's treatment of the Sanctus and the Agnus Dei is completely different. They are basically compositions for double chorus, excepting the episode of the "Benedictus" which is constructed like a sort of short aria for solo bass. Venetian performing customs dictate these different and o in a manner of speaking - unbalanced proportions between the different parts of the Ordinarium Missae.

-Carlida Steffan (Traslated by Elisabeth Tomlin)

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Наименование трека



   1 Kyrie         0:06:17  
   2 Gloria         0:15:12  
   3 Credo         0:14:03  
   4 Sanctus         0:03:30  
   5 Agnus Dei         0:02:39  


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