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     Maurice Ravel
 
 

Ravel, (Joseph) Maurice (Born; Ciboure, 7 March 1875; Died; Paris, 28 Dec 1937). French composer. His father's background was Swiss and his mother's Basque, but he was brought up in Paris, where he studied at the Conservatoire, 1889-95, returning in 1897 for further study with Faure and Gedalge. In 1893 he met Chabrier and Satie, both of whom were influential. A decade later he was an established composer, at least of songs and piano pieces, working with luminous precision in a style that could imitate Lisztian bravura (Jeux d'eau) or Renaissance calm (Pavane pour une infante defunte); there was also the String Quartet, somewhat in the modal style of Debussy's but more ornately instrumented. However, he five times failed to win the Prix de Rome (1900-05) and left the Conservatoire to continue his life as a freelance musician.

During the next decade, that of his 30s, he was at his most productive. There was a rivalry with Debussy and some dispute about priority in musical discoveries, but Ravel's taste for sharply defined ideas and closed formal units was entirely his own, as was the grand virtuosity of much of his piano music from this period, notably the cycles Miroirs and Gaspard de la nuit. Many works also show his fascination with things temporally or geographically distant, with moods sufficiently alien to be objectively drawn: these might be historical musical styles, as in the post-Schubertian Valses nobles et sentimentales, or the imagination of childhood, as in Ma mere l'oye Or the composer's inspection might be turned on the East (Sheherazade) or, as happened repeatedly, on Spain (Rapsodie espagnole, the comic opera L'heure espagnole). Or there might be a double focus, as in the vision of ancient Greece through the modification of 18th century French classicism in the languorous ballet Daphnis et Chloe;, written for Dyagilev.

The Ballets Russes were also important in introducing him to Stravinsky, with whom he collaborated on a version of Musorgsky's Khovanshchina, and whose musical development he somewhat paralleled during the decade or so after The Rite of Spring. The set of three MallarmEacute; songs with nonet accompaniment were written partly under the influence of Stravinsky's Japanese Lyrics and Schoenberg's Pierrot lunaire, and the two sonatas of the 1920s can be compared with Stravinsky's abstract works of the period in their harmonic astringency and selfconscious use of established forms. However, Ravel's Le tombeau de Couperin, just as selfconscious, predates Stravinsky's neo-classicism, and the pressure of musical history is perhaps felt most intensely in the ballet La valse where 3/4 rhythm develops into a dance macabre : both these works, like many others, exist in both orchestral and piano versions, testifying to Ravel's superb technique in both media (in 1922 he applied his orchestral skills tellingly to Musorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition). Other postwar works return to some of the composer's obsessions: with the delights and dangers of the child's world in the sophisticated fantasy opera L'enfant et les sortileges, with musical Spanishness in Bolero and the songs for a projected Don Quixote film, and with the exotic in the Chansons madecasses. His last major effort was a pair of piano concertos, one exuberant and cosmopolitan (in G major), the other (for left hand only) more darkly and sturdily single-minded. He died after a long illness.

Operas L'heure espagnole (1911); L'enfant et les sortileges (1925)

Ballets Ma mere l'oye (1911); Daphnis et Chloe (1912); La valse (1920, perf. 1928); Bolero (1928)

Orchestral music Rapsodie espagnole (1908); Pavane pour une infante deunte (1910); Valses nobles et sentimentales (1912); Pf Conc., left hand (1930); Pf Conc., G (1931)

Chamber music Str Qt (1903); Introduction and Allegro, harp, 6 insts (1905); Pf Trio (1914); Sonata, vn, vc (1922); Tzigane, vn, pf (1924); Sonata, vn, pf (1927)

Piano music Menuet antique (1895); Pavane pour une infante defunte (1899); Jeux d'eau (1901); Sonatine (1905); Miroirs (1905); Gaspard de la nuit (1908); Ma mere l'oye, 4 hands (1910); Valses nobles et sentimentales (1911); Le tombeau de couperin (1917)

Songs with instruments Sheherazade (1903); Trois poemes de Mallarme (1913); Don Quichotte a Dulcinee (1933); Chansons madecasses (1926)

Songs with piano 5 meodies populaires grecques (1906); Histoires naturelles (1906); Chants populaires (1910); 2 melodies hebraiques (1914); Ronsard a son Ame (1924)

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РАВЕЛЬ (Ravel) Морис (1875-1937), французский композитор. Его творческие открытия в области музыкального языка (гармонии, ритма, оркестровки и др.) способствовали развитию новых стилистических течений в музыке 20 в. Опера "Испанский час" (1907), опера-балет "Дитя и волшебство" (1925); балет "Дафнис и Хлоя" (1912); "Испанская рапсодия" (1907), "Болеро" (1928) для оркестра, концертная фантазия "Цыганка" для скрипки с фортепьяно (1924), фортепьянные пьесы, в т. ч. "Игра воды" (1901), цикл "Отражения" (1905) и др. Оркестровал "Картинки с выставки" М. П. Мусоргского (1922).


Ресурсы сети, связанные с исполнителем:
Bio Творческие портреты композиторов
www.essortment.com/all/mauriceravel_rmjp.htm About
www.richard-dowling.com/SonatinePreface.html About
www.musicacademyonline.com/composer/biographies.php?bid=116 Biography
www.essentialsofmusic.com/composer/ravel.html Biography
www.pianosociety.com/cms/index.php?section=167 Biography
www.glbtq.com/arts/ravel_m.html Biography
artsalive.ca/en/mus/greatcomposers/ravel.html Biography
www.classical.net/music/comp.lst/ravel.html Biography, works, links
www.maurice-ravel.net Personal website. Compositions, friends and family, places
www.tonnel.ru/?l=gzl&uid=974&op=bio Биография, творчество [ru]
intoclassics.net/publ/7-1-0-45 Краткая автобиография [ru]
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maurice_Ravel About from 'wikipedia'
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Равель,_Морис О исполнителе из 'википедии' [ru]
en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maurice_Ravel About from 'wapedia.mobi' [mobile]
ru.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Равель,_Морис О исполнителе из 'мобильной википедии' [mobile] [ru]
Хронологические таблицы (Hrono table)  
Поиск видео (Video Search) :  

CD коллекции, связанные с исполнителем:
  как основной исполнитель ...
 Maurice Ravel - 'Chamber Music' - 2003, EMI
 Maurice Ravel - 'The Piano Concertos' - 1987, Edel Classics
  как основной соисполнитель ...
 Ursula Holliger - 'Franzosische Meisterwerke Fur Harfe' - 1987, Claves
 Alexander Lonquich - 'Plainte Calme' - 2004, ECM
 Jacques Loussier - 'Ravel's Bolero' - 1999, Telarc
 Lorin Maazel - 'Ravel: Bolero, Daphnis Et Chloe Suites 1 & 2, La Valse, Rapsodie Espagnole' - 2004, RCA
 Various Artists - 'Faure: Requiem Op. 48. Ravel: Pavane Por Une Infante Defunte' - 1970,
 Various Artists - 'Prokofiev: Piano Concerto No.3 Ravel: Piano Concerto In G, Gaspard De La Nuit' - 1967, Deutsche Grammophon
 Various Artists - 'Zimmermann, Schiff: Honegger, Martinu, Bach, Pintscher, Ravel' - 2006, ECM
  как соисполнитель ...
 Glenn Gould - 'Berg, Krenek, Webern, Debussy, Ravel' - 1995, Sony, Galactic
 James Last - 'Eighty Not Out' - 2010, Universal Music
 Melissa Morgan - 'Until I Met You' - 2009, Telarc
 Anne-Sophie Mutter - 'Carmen-Fantasie' - 1993, Deutsche Grammophon
 Jessye Norman - 'Jessye Norman Collection: A French Collection' - 2005, Philips
 Tessa Souter - 'Beyond The Blue' - 2012, Motema Music, Venus Records
 Vladimir Spivakov - 'Bravo!' - 2000, VAT
 Herbert Von Karajan - 'Ravel, Debussy, Saint-Saens: Orchestral Works' - 2003, Deutsche Grammophon
 


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