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     George Frideric Handel

Handel, George Frideric (Born; Halle, 23 Feb 1685; Died; London, 14 April 1759). English composer of German birth. He was born Georg Friederich Handel, son of a barber-surgeon who intended him for the law. At first he practised music clandestinely, but his father was encouraged to allow him to study and he became a pupil of Zachow, the principal organist in Halle. When he was 17 he was appointed organist of the Calvinist Cathedral, but a year later he left for Hamburg. There he played the violin and harpsichord in the opera house, where his Almira was given at the beginning of 1705, soon followed by his Nero. The next year he accepted an invitation to Italy, where he spent more than three years, in Florence, Rome, Naples and Venice. He had operas or other dramatic works given in all these cities (oratorios in Rome, including La resurrezione) and, writing many Italian cantatas, perfected his technique in setting Italian words for the human voice. In Rome he also composed some Latin church music.

He left Italy early in 1710 and went to Hanover, where he was appointed Kapellmeister to the elector. But he at once took leave to take up an invitation to London, where his opera Rinaldo was produced early in 1711. Back in Hanover, he applied for a second leave and returned to London in autumn 1712. Four more operas followed in 1712-15, with mixed success; he also wrote music for the church and for court and was awarded a royal pension. In 1716 he may have visited Germany (where possibly he set Brockes's Passion text); it was probably the next year that he wrote the Water Music to serenade George I at a river-party on the Thames. In 1717 he entered the service of the Earl of Carnarvon (soon to be Duke of Chandos) at Edgware, near London, where he wrote 11 anthems and two dramatic works, the evergreen Acis and Galatea and Esther, for the modest band of singers and players retained there.

In 1718-19 a group of noblemen tried to put Italian opera in London on a firmer footing, and launched a company with royal patronage, the Royal Academy of Music; Handel, appointed musical director, went to Germany, visiting Dresden and poaching several singers for the Academy, which opened in April 1720. Handel's Radamisto was the second opera and it inaugurated a noble series over the ensuing years including Ottone, Giulio Cesare, Rodelinda, Tamerlano and Admeto. Works by Bononcini (seen by some as a rival to Handel) and others were given too, with success at least equal to Handel's, by a company with some of the finest singers in Europe, notably the castrato Senesino and the soprano Cuzzoni. But public support was variable and the financial basis insecure, and in 1728 the venture collapsed. The previous year Handel, who had been appointed a composer to the Chapel Royal in 1723, had composed four anthems for the coronation of George II and had taken British naturalization.

Opera remained his central interest, and with the Academy impresario, Heidegger, he hired the King's Theatre and (after a journey to Italy and Germany to engage fresh singers) embarked on a five-year series of seasons starting in late 1729. Success was mixed. In 1732 Esther was given at a London musical society by friends of Handel's, then by a rival group in public; Handel prepared to put it on at the King's Theatre, but the Bishop of London banned a stage version of a biblical work. He then put on Acis, also in response to a rival venture. The next summer he was invited to Oxford and wrote an oratorio, Athalia, for performance at the Sheldonian Theatre. Meanwhile, a second opera company ('Opera of the Nobility', including Senesino) had been set up in competition with Handel's and the two competed for audiences over the next four seasons before both failed. This period drew from Handel, however, such operas as Orlando and two with ballet, Ariodante and Alcina, among his finest scores.

During the rest of the 1730s Handel moved between Italian opera and the English forms, oratorio, ode and the like, unsure of his future commercially and artistically. After a journey to Dublin in 1741-2, where Messiah had its premiere (in aid of charities), he put opera behind him and for most of the remainder of his life gave oratorio performances, mostly at the new Covent Garden theatre, usually at or close to the Lent season. The Old Testament provided the basis for most of them (Samson, Belshazzar, Joseph, Joshua, Solomon, for example), but he sometimes experimented, turning to classical mythology (Semele, Hercules) or Christian history (Theodora), with little public success. All these works, along with such earlier ones as Acis and his two Cecilian odes (to Dryden words), were performed in concert form in English. At these performances he usually played in the interval a concerto on the organ (a newly invented musical genre) or directed a concerto grosso (his op.6, a set of 12, published in 1740, represents his finest achievement in the form).

During his last decade he gave regular performances of Messiah, usually with about 16 singers and an orchestra of about 40, in aid of the Foundling Hospital. In 1749 he wrote a suite for wind instruments (with optional strings) for performance in Green Park to accompany the Royal Fireworks celebrating the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle. His last oratorio, composed as he grew blind, was Jephtha (1752); The Triumph of Time and Truth (1757) is largely composed of earlier material. Handel was very economical in the re-use of his ideas; at many times in his life he also drew heavily on the music of others (though generally avoiding detection) - such 'borrowings' may be of anything from a brief motif to entire movements, sometimes as they stood but more often accommodated to his own style.

Handel died in 1759 and was buried in Westminster Abbey, recognized in England and by many in Germany as the greatest composer of his day. The wide range of expression at his command is shown not only in the operas, with their rich and varied arias, but also in the form he created, the English oratorio, where it is applied to the fates of nations as well as individuals. He had a vivid sense of drama. But above all he had a resource and originality of invention, to be seen in the extraordinary variety of music in the op.6 concertos, for example, in which melodic beauty, boldness and humour all play a part, that place him and J. S. Bach as the supreme masters of the Baroque era in music.

Dramatic music operas - Almira (1705); Rodrigo (1707); Agrippina; (1710); Rinaldo (1711. rev. 1731); Il pastor fido (1712); Teseo (1713); Silla (1713); Amadigi di Gaula (1715); Radamisto (1720); Act 3 of Muzio Scevola (1721); Floridante (1721); Ottone (1723); Flavio (1723); Giulio Cesare (1724); Tamerlano (1724); Rodelinda (1725); Scipione (1726); Alessandro (1726); Admeto (1727); Riccardo Primo (1727); Siroe (1728); Tolomeo (1728); Lotario (1729); Partenope (1730); Poro (1731); Ezio (1732); Sosarme (1732); Orlando (1733); Arianna (1734); Ariodante (1735); Alcina (1735); Atalanta (1736); Arminio (1737); Giustino (1737); Berenice (1737); Faramondo (1738); Serse (1738); Imeneo (1740); Deidamia (1741); 3 pasticcios; arrs. music for The Alchemist (1710), Comus (1745), Alceste (comp. 1750)

Oratorios, odes etc Il trionfo del Tempo e del Disinganno (1707); La resurrezione (1708); Ode for the Birthday of Queen Anne (Quest;1713); Brockes Passion (Quest;1716); Acis and Galatea, masque (1718); Esther (1718, rev. 1732); Deborah (1733); Athalia (1733); Parnasso in festa (1734); Alexander's Feast (1736); Il trionfo del Tempo e della VeritAgrave; (1737); Saul (1739); Israel in Egypt (1739); Ode for St Cecilia's Day (1739); LPrime;Allegro, il Penseroso ed il Moderato (1740); Messiah (1742); Samson (1743); Semele (1744); Joseph and his Brethren (1744); Hercules (1745); Belshazzar (1745); Occasional Oratorio (1746); Judas Maccabaeus (1747); Joshua (1748); Alexander Balus (1748); Susanna (1749); Solomon (1749); Theodora (1750); The Choice of Hercules(1751); Jephtha (1752); The Triumph of Time and Truth (1757)

Sacred music Latin works incl. Dixit Dominus (1707), Laudate pueri Dominum (1707), Nisi Dominus(1707); English works-11 'Chandos' anthems; 4 Coronation anthems, incl. Zadok the Priest (1727); Chapel Royal anthems; 'Foundling Hospital Anthem' (1749); 'Anthem on the Peace' (1749); 'Funeral Anthem' (1737); 'Utrecht' Te Deum and Jubilate (1713); 'Dettingen' Te Deum (1743); other pieces; hymns

Secular vocal music 7 dramatic cantatas; Circa;25 solo and duo cantatas with inst(s)s Circa;70 solo cantatas with bc; Circa;20 duets and trios with bc songs (most to English texts)

Orchestral music 6 concerti grossi op.3, BFlat;, BFlat;, G, F, d, D/d; 12 Grand Concertos, op.6, G. F, e, a, D, g, BFlat;, c, F. d, A, b (1739); 3 concerti a due cori, BFlat;, F, F (Circa;1747); conc. for Alexander's Feast, C (1736); 3 ob concs.; 6 concs. op.4, nos.1-5, g/G, BFlat;, g, F, F, org, no.6, BFlat;, for harp (1738); 2 org concs., F. A, in 'A Second Set' (1740); 6 org concs. op.7, BFlat;, A, BFlat;, d, g, BFlat;; other org concs. Water Music (1717); Music for the Royal Fireworks (1749); other pieces; dances

Chamber music 6 trio sonatas op.2; 7 trio sonatas op.5; solo sonatas with bc (12 pubd as op.1) - 6 for rec, 5 for fl, 3 for ob, 5 for vn, 1 for va da gamba

Keyboard music 2 bks suites (1720, 1733); 6 fugues (1735); preludes, sonatinas, airs


Георг Фридрих Гендель

Гендель родился 23 февраля 1685 года в саксонском городе Галле. Его отцом был придворный цирюльник-хирург. С семи лет активно занимался музицированием, с девяти - композиторской деятельностью. Отец мечтал видеть сына юристом, но Гендель самостоятельно научился играть на органе.

В 1703 году он поехал в Гамбург, где находился оперный театр. Там, в 1705 году он написал свои первые оперы, "Альмира" и "Нерон". В 1707-1709 годах композитор путешествовал и учился в Италии, где к нему пришла слава мастера итальянской оперы.

В 1710 году он становится капельмейстером при дворе ганноверского курфюрста Георга I, которому по закону 1701 года предстояло стать королём Великобритании. В том же 1710 году Гендель отправляется в Лондон, затем в 1712 году ненадолго возвращается в Ганновер, где сочиняет ряд вокальных дуэтов для невестки курфюрста принцессы Каролины (будущей королевы Великобритании).

С 1712 года композитор почти постоянно живёт в Англии. Поначалу он проводит год в графстве Суррей, в доме богатого мецената и любителя музыки Барна Элмса. Затем в течение двух лет живёт у графа Берлингтона вблизи Лондона - в этот период он ставит две новые итальянские оперы, за которые королева Анна жалует ему пожизненную пенсию в 200 фунтов.

В 1714 году, после кончины Анны, курфюрст Георг стал британским королём и переехал в Лондон. Для его двора Гендель сочиняет "Музыку на воде", предназначенную для исполнения на праздниках.

С 1720 по 1728 года Гендель занимает должность директора Королевской академии музыки. 13 февраля 1726 года композитор переходит в британское подданство.

В 1727 году по случаю коронации английского короля Георга II написал оперу "Садок-Священник" (англ. Zadok the Priest), которая впоследствии стала музыкальной основой для Гимна футбольной Лиги чемпионов УЕФА. В 1720-х и 1730-х Гендель продолжает писать много опер, а начиная с 1740-х основное место в его творчестве занимают оратории (самая известная из них - "Мессия", она была поставлена в Дублине). На рубеже 1750-х у композитора ухудшается зрение. 3 мая 1752 года ему оперируют глаза, однако безуспешно. Болезнь продолжает прогрессировать.

В 1753 году наступает полная слепота. За несколько дней до смерти, 6 апреля 1759 года, Гендель дирижировал ораторией "Мессия". Во время исполнения силы оставили его, и спустя некоторое время, 14 апреля 1759 года, он скончался. Похоронен в Вестминстерском аббатстве (Уголок поэтов).


Ресурсы сети, связанные с исполнителем:
Bio Творческие портреты композиторов
gfhandel.org History, music
www.ipl.org/exhibit/mushist/bar/handel.htm History, music
munzen.ru/web/haendel_gf Биография
www.tonnel.ru/?l=gzl&uid=514&op=bio Биография, творчество [ru]
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Frideric_Handel About from 'wikipedia'
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Гендель,_Георг_Фридрих О исполнителе из 'википедии' [ru]
www.cdguide.nm.ru/composers/handel.html Биография [mobile] [ru]
en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Frideric_Handel About from 'wapedia.mobi' [mobile]
ru.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Гендель,_Георг_Фридрих О исполнителе из 'мобильной википедии' [mobile] [ru]
Хронологические таблицы (Hrono table)  
Поиск видео (Video Search) :  

CD коллекции, связанные с исполнителем:
  как основной исполнитель ...
 George Frideric Handel - 'Alcina' - 2000, Erato
 George Frideric Handel - 'Brockes Passion. Johannis Passion' - 2003, Brilliant Classics
 George Frideric Handel - 'Coronation Anthems. Dixit Dominus' - 1988, EMI
 George Frideric Handel - 'Der Messias' - 1965, Deutsche Grammophon
 George Frideric Handel - 'Faramondo' - 2009, Virgin
 George Frideric Handel - 'Il Trionfo Del Tempo e Del Disinganno' - 2007, Virgin
 George Frideric Handel - 'Messiah' - 1994, Harmonia mundi
 George Frideric Handel - 'Ode For The Birthday Of Queen Anne' - 1995, Harmonia mundi
 George Frideric Handel - 'Serse' - 1999, Sony, BMG
 George Frideric Handel - 'The Occasional Oratorio' - 1995, Hyperion Rec.
  как основной соисполнитель ...
 Ian Bostridge - 'Great Handel' - 2007, EMI
 David Daniels - 'Handel: Operatic Arias' - 1998, Virgin
 Joyce DiDonato - 'Furore: Handel Opera Arias' - 2008, Virgin Classics
 Richard Egarr - 'Handel: Organ Concertos, Op. 4' - 2008, Harmonia mundi
 Renee Fleming - 'Handel' - 2004, Decca
 Keith Jarrett - 'Handel: Suites For Keyboard' - 1995, ECM
 Yehudi Menuhin - 'Handel: Feuerwerksmusok' - 1969, Limit Edition
 Simon Preston - 'Handel: Complete Organ Concertos' - 2002, DG Archiv
 Andreas Scholl - 'Handel: Il Duello Amoroso' - 2007, Harmonia mundi
 Andreas Scholl - 'Handel: Ombra Mai Fu' - 1999, Harmonia mundi
 Various Artists - 'Music For A Glass Bead Game' - 1997, John Marks Records
 Gottfried Von Der Goltz - 'Purcell: Dioclesian Suite. Handel: Concerto Grosso Op. 6 No. 6' - 2002, Deutsche Harmonia Mundi
  как соисполнитель ...
 Cecilia Bartoli - 'A Hymn For The World' - 1997, Deutsche Grammophon
 Cecilia Bartoli - 'Sacrificium' - 2009, Decca
 Cecilia Bartoli - 'The Art Of Cecilia Bartoli' - 2002, Decca
 Kathleen Battle - 'Kathleen Battle At Carnegie Hall' - 1992, Deutsche Grammophon
 Michael Chance - 'The Art Of Countertenor' - 1999, Archiv
 Kathleen Ferrier - 'A Tribute' - 2003, Decca
 Renee Fleming - 'Sacred Songs' - 2005, Decca
 Il Giardino Armonico - 'Il Giardino Armonico' - 2006, Warner Classics
 Jochen Kowalski - 'Jochen Kowalski Singt Arien' - 1998, Berlin Classics
 La Tempestad - 'Sopranos y Castrati En El Londres De Farinelli "Caro Dardo"' - 2007, Cimbalo Producciones, MAA Ediciones
 Gerard Lesne - 'Cantatas' - 2008, Virgin Classics
 Gerard Lesne - 'Cantatas For Solo Countertenor' - 2001, Virgin
 Jacques Loussier - 'Baroque Favorites' - 2001, Telarc
 Jacques Loussier - 'Handel: Water Music & Royal Fireworks' - 2002, Telarc
 Yoshikazu Mera - 'Belcanto Duets' - 1998, Nightingale
 Patricia Petibon - 'Rosso - Italian Baroque Arias' - 2010, Deutsche Grammophon
 Karl Richter - 'A Universal Musician' - 2006, Deutsche Grammophon
 Andreas Scholl - 'Arias For Senesino' - 2005, Decca
 Andreas Scholl - 'Heroes' - 1999, Decca
 Andreas Scholl - 'The Voice' - 2000, Harmonia mundi
 Andres Segovia - 'The Great Master' - 2004, Deutsche Grammophon
 Joan Sutherland - 'En Evening With Joan Sutherland' - 1999, Allegro
 The Classical Jazz Quartet - 'Christmas' - 2006, Kind of Blue

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