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     Chet Baker

Real name: Chesney Henry Baker, Jr.
Born: Dec 23, 1929 in Yale, OK
Died: May 13, 1988 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Genres: Jazz
Styles: Vocal Jazz, West Coast Jazz, Cool
Instruments: Vocals, Trumpet

Chet Baker was a primary exponent of the West Coast school of cool jazz in the early and mid-'50s. As a trumpeter, he had a generally restrained, intimate playing style and he attracted attention beyond jazz for his photogenic looks and singing. But his career was marred by drug addiction.

Baker's father, Chesney Henry Baker Sr., was a guitarist who was forced to turn to other work during the Depression; his mother, Vera (Moser) Baker, worked in a perfumery. The family moved from Oklahoma to Glendale, CA, in 1940. As a child, Baker sang at amateur competitions and in a church choir. Before his adolescence, his father brought home a trombone for him, then replaced it with a trumpet when the larger instrument proved too much for him. He had his first formal training in music at Glendale Junior High School, but would play largely by ear for the rest of his life. In 1946, when he was only 16 years old, he dropped out of high school and his parents signed papers allowing him to enlist in the army; he was sent to Berlin, Germany, where he played in the 298th Army Band. After his discharge in 1948, he enrolled at El Camino College in Los Angeles, where he studied theory and harmony while playing in jazz clubs, but he quit college in the middle of his second year. He re-enlisted in the army in 1950 and became a member of the Sixth Army Band at the Presidio in San Francisco. But he also began sitting in at clubs in the city and he finally obtained a second discharge to become a professional jazz musician.

Baker initially played in Vido Musso's band, then with Stan Getz. (The first recording featuring Baker is a performance of "Out of Nowhere" that comes from a tape of a jam session made on March 24, 1952, and was released on the Fresh Sound Records LP Live at the Trade Winds.) His break came quickly, when, in the spring of 1952, he was chosen at an audition to play a series of West Coast dates with Charlie Parker, making his debut with the famed saxophonist at the Tiffany Club in Los Angeles on May 29, 1952. That summer, he began playing in the Gerry Mulligan Quartet, a group featuring only trombone, trumpet, bass, and drums - no piano - that attracted attention during an engagement at the Haig nightclub and through recordings on newly formed Pacific Jazz Records (later known as World Pacific Records), beginning with the 10" LP Gerry Mulligan Quartet, which featured Baker's famous rendition of "My Funny Valentine."

The Gerry Mulligan Quartet lasted for less than a year, folding when its leader went to jail on a drug charge in June 1953. Baker went solo, forming his own quartet, which initially featured Russ Freeman on piano, Red Mitchell on bass, and Bobby White on drums, and making his first recording as leader for Pacific Jazz on July 24, 1953. Baker was hailed by fans and critics and he won a number of polls in the next few years. In 1954, Pacific Jazz released Chet Baker Sings, an album that increased his popularity but alienated traditional jazz fans; he would continue to sing for the rest of his career. Acknowledging his chiseled good looks, nearby Hollywood came calling and he made his acting debut in the film Hell's Horizon, released in the fall of 1955. But he declined an offer of a studio contract and toured Europe from September 1955 to April 1956. When he returned to the U.S., he formed a quintet that featured saxophonist Phil Urso and pianist Bobby Timmons. Contrary to his reputation for relaxed, laid-back playing, Baker turned to more of a bop style with this group, which recorded the album Chet Baker & Crew for Pacific Jazz in July 1956.

Baker toured the U.S. in February 1957 with the Birdland All Stars and took a group to Europe later that year. He returned to Europe to stay in 1959, settling in Italy, where he acted in the film Urlatori Alla Sbarra. Hollywood, meanwhile, had not entirely given up on him, at least as a source of inspiration, and in 1960, a fictionalized film biography of his life, All the Fine Young Cannibals, appeared with Robert Wagner in the starring role of Chad Bixby.

Baker had become addicted to heroin in the 1950s and had been incarcerated briefly on several occasions, but his drug habit only began to interfere with his career significantly in the 1960s. He was arrested in Italy in the summer of 1960 and spent almost a year and a half in jail. He celebrated his release by recording Chet Is Back for RCA in February 1962. (It has since been reissued as The Italian Sessions and as Somewhere Over the Rainbow.) Later in the year, he was arrested in West Germany and expelled to Switzerland, then France, later moving to England in August 1962 to appear as himself in the film The Stolen Hours, which was released in 1963. He was deported from England to France because of a drug offense in March 1963. He lived in Paris and performed there and in Spain over the next year, but after being arrested again in West Germany, he was deported back to the U.S. He returned to America after five years in Europe on March 3, 1964, and played primarily in New York and Los Angeles during the mid-'60s, having switched temporarily from trumpet to flьgelhorn. In the summer of 1966, he suffered a severe beating in San Francisco that was related to his drug addiction. The incident is usually misdated and frequently exaggerated in accounts of his life, often due to his own unreliable testimony. It is said, for example, that all his teeth were knocked out, which is not the case, though one tooth was broken and the general deterioration of his teeth led to his being fitted with dentures in the late '60s, forcing him to retrain his embouchure. The beating was not the cause of the decline in his career during this period, but it is emblematic of that decline. By the end of the '60s, he was recording and performing only infrequently and he stopped playing completely in the early '70s.

Regaining some control over his life by taking methadone to control his heroin addiction (though he remained an addict), Baker eventually mounted a comeback that culminated in a prominent New York club engagement in November 1973 and a reunion concert with Gerry Mulligan at Carnegie Hall in November 1974 that was recorded and released by Epic Records. By the mid-'70s, Baker was able to return to Europe and he spent the rest of his life performing there primarily, with occasional trips to Japan and periods back in the U.S., though he had no permanent residence. He attracted the attention of rock musicians, with whom he occasionally performed, for example adding trumpet to Elvis Costello's recording of his anti-Falklands War song "Shipbuilding" in 1983. In 1987, photographer and filmmaker Bruce Weber undertook a documentary film about Baker. The following year, Baker died in a fall from a hotel window in Amsterdam after taking heroin and cocaine. Weber's film, Let's Get Lost, premiered in September 1988 to critical acclaim and earned an Academy Award nomination. In 1997, Baker's unfinished autobiography was published under the title As Though I Had Wings: The Lost Memoir and the book was optioned by Miramax for a film adaptation.

Baker's drug addiction caused him to lead a disorganized and peripatetic life, his constant need for cash requiring him to accept many ill-advised recording offers, while his undependability prevented him from making long-term commitments to record labels. As a result, his discography is extensive and wildly uneven.

- William Ruhlmann (All Music Guide)


Бейкер Чесни X. (23 декабря 1929, Йейл, Оклахома - май 1988) - американский джазовый музыкант (труба, фортепиано, вокал), руководитель ансамбля.

В возрасте 11 лет приехал с семьей в Калифорнию. В школе обучался игре на трубе, затем начал выступать в духовых и танцевальных оркестрах. Службу в армии проходил в 3ападном Берлине как трубач военного оркестра (1946-48), после демобилизации продолжил музыкальное образование в колледже Эль-Камино (Лос-Анджелес), где изучал теорию музыки и гармонию. В 1949 вновь получил приглашение в военный оркестр PRESIDIO ARMY BAND, с которым играл в Сан-Франциско до 1952. В тот же период познакомился с музыкантами-боперами, участвовал в джем-сешн. В начале 1952 сотрудничал с Чарли Паркером и Видо Муссо, в конце того же года в Голливуде примкнул к Джерри Маллигану, и вскоре стал знаменитостью как солист его квартета. В дальнейшем выступал преимущественно с собственным комбо (начиная с 1953), членом которого был также пианист Расс Фримен. Совершил несколько европейских турне в 1955-56. Возобновил сотрудничество с Маллиганом, успешно концертировал в составе его секстета в Париже (и как пианист). Аккомпанировал певице Катерине Валенте во время ее гастролей в Баден-Бадене. В 1959-60 находился в Италии, здесь из-за пристрастия к наркотикам перенес психическое заболевание, прошел курс лечения. В 1964 вернулся из Европы в США, снова приобрел широкую известность, принимал участие в различных джазовых фестивалях (в Ньюпорте, Монтерее и других). В разное время с Бейкером играли музыканты из Франции, Бельгии, Голландии, ФРГ, Дании, среди его американских партнеров были пианисты Пол Блей и Дик Туордзик, саксофонист Стэн Гетц, басист Джимми Бонд, барабанщики Питер Литмен и "Бивер" Харрис. Сделал записи с европейскими музыкантами, Дж. Маллиганом (1952-53, 1957-58), С. Гетцем, своими ансамблями (с 1953); на некоторых пластинках записан как вокалист.

В плеяде трубачей, выдвинувшихся в начальный период развития модерн-джаза, занимает одно из ведущих мест (наряду с Майлсом Дэвисом, "Диззи" Гиллеспи, Фредди Хаббардом, Клиффордом Брауном, Артом Фармером). Является первым белым трубачом современного кул-стиля в сфере комбо-джаза. В этом он несколько опередил М. Дэвиса, который от бибопа пришел к более последовательной кул-ориентации на рубеже 40-50-х годов прежде всего в практике большого оркестра и миддл-бэнда, а уже затем в комбо. Примечательно, что исполнительская манера Бейкера формировалась под непосредственным влиянием идей М. Дэвиса и его экспериментов с кул-саундом (не случайно Бейкера зачастую называют "белым Майлсом Дэвисом"). Однако Бейкер смог раньше, чем сам Дэвис, с большей полнотой и законченностью реализовать его идеи. Несмотря на стилевую общность этих двух выдающихся кул-музыкантов, манера игры Бейкера достаточно индивидуальна. Oна очень лирична, даже "женственна" (по определению критиков) и вместе с тем спокойна, уравновешенна, лишена драматизма и философичности, свойственных Дэвису. Преобладают точная и чистая интонация (у Дэвиса много "киксов", "небрежностей" в звуковедении), закругленные мелодические фразы, медленные темпы, средний регистр, изысканность и усложненность гармонического мышления сочетаются со склонностью к применению разнообразных полифонических приемов. Звучание трубы приобретает тембровую окраску, напоминающую корнет (очевидна преемственная связь с "Биксом" Бейдербеком), иногда валторну, саксофон и деревянные духовые. Во многих отношениях Бейкер является типичным представителем вест-коуст-джаза (в 1952 квартет Бейкера - Маллигана сделал первые грамзаписи в этом стиле). Ему принадлежит важная роль в маллигановских экспериментах с "бесклавирными" составами комбо, в которых отсутствие гармонической поддержки мелодических голосов партией фортепиано должно было восполняться за счет полифонизации фактуры и требовало развитого гармонического слуха у каждого участника ансамбля. Данные опыты основывались на синтезе различных стилевых элементов модерн-джаза, свинга и современной академической камерной музыки, создали предпосылки для последующего расцвета кул-стиля и "третьего течения". Бейкер обладал необычно высоким, почти юношеским голосом; в пении сохранил ту же мягкую лирическую манеру исполнения. Как пианист менее значителен.


Ресурсы сети, связанные с исполнителем:
musicians.allaboutjazz.com/musician.php?id=3578 Biography & articles on 'All About Jazz'
chetbakertribute.com/chet.htm А Chet Baker tribute pages.
www.chetbaker.net Хороший, объемный сайт. Есть тексты.
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chet_Baker About from 'wikipedia'
en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chet_Baker About from 'wapedia.mobi' [mobile]
Хронологические таблицы (Hrono table)  
Поиск видео (Video Search) :  

CD коллекции, связанные с исполнителем:
  как основной исполнитель ...
 Chet Baker - 'Baby Breeze' - 1964, Limelight, Polygram
 Chet Baker - 'Chet Baker & Strings' - 1954, Columbia
 Chet Baker - 'Chet Is Back!' - 1962, RCA
 Chet Baker - 'It Could Happen To You' - 2002, Import
 Chet Baker - 'Mister B.' - 1983, Timeless
 Chet Baker - 'Oh You Crazy Moon' - 1978, Enja Justin Time
 Chet Baker - 'On The Street Where You Live' - 1959, Ars Nova
 Chet Baker - 'Peace' - 2001, Enja
 Chet Baker - 'Picture Of Heath' - 1961, Toshiba, Pacific Jazz
 Chet Baker - 'Sentimental Walk In Paris' - 2002, DRG
 Chet Baker - 'Strollin'' - 1985, Enja
 Chet Baker - 'The Best Thing For You' - 1977, A&M
 Chet Baker - 'The Complete Legendary Session' - 2010, AJC
 Chet Baker - 'The Route' - 1956, Pacific Jazz, Galactic
 Chet Baker - 'You Can't Go Home Gain' - 1977, A&M
  как основной соисполнитель ...
 Stan Getz - 'Quintessence. Volume 2' - 1983, Concord Jazz
 Stan Getz - 'The Stockholm Concerts' - 1983, Polygram
 Charlie Haden - 'Silence' - 1989, Soul Note
 Gerry Mulligan - 'Complete 1953 Studio Masters' - 2003, The Jazz Factory
 Gerry Mulligan - 'Walking Shoes' - 2012, GRP
 Charlie Parker - 'Bird & Chet: Inglewood Jam' - 1991, Jazz Door
  как соисполнитель ...
 Ron Carter - 'Patrao' - 1980, Milestone, OJC
 Charlie Haden - 'Always Say Goodbye' - 1994, Polygram
 Jim Hall - 'Studio Trieste' - 2007, King Japan
 Jim Hall - 'Youkali' - 1982, CTI Records
 Annie Ross - 'Four Classic Albums Plus' - 2009, Avid Jazz
 Various Artists - 'Round Midnight' - 2002, Columbia

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  Последние изменения в документе сделаны 14/10/2016 18:39:20

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