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     Pierre Boulez

Country: France
Birth: Mar 26, 1925 in Montbrison, France
Died: 5 January 2016 in Baden-Baden, Germany
Period: Modern

Pierre Boulez (b. 1925), French composer, conductor, and music theorist, is regarded as a leading composer of the post-Webern serialist movement who also embraced elements of aleatory and electronics. As a child Boulez demonstrated a formidable aptitude in mathematics, but left for Paris in 1942 to enroll in the Paris Conservatoire. His studies there often ran into difficulties, as he was rapidly developing revolutionary - "Praise be to amnesia" - attitudes towards all things traditional. But two decisive influences during those years helped to shape his musical personality. The first was Messiaen's famous analysis course, the other was Rene Leibowitz, who introduced him to serial music, where Boulez found "a harmonic and contrapuntal richness and a capacity for development an extension of a kind I have never found anywhere else."

By the late 1940s, Boulez began using a technique known as total serialization. A work which soon gave Boulez public notice was his Second Piano Sonata (1948), following a much publicized concert in Darmstadt in 1952 by Yvonne Loriod, Messiaen's wife. The piece from the 1950s that sealed his reputation was Le Marteau sans Maitre from 1954 (revised in 1955), for singer and chamber ensemble. The instrumentation gives prominence to exotic percussion, extended vocal techniques, and textures that are often brittle but also lyrical. Rigorously organized, Le Marteau nonetheless goes beyond strict serialism to a more personal style. The premiere took place in Germany in 1955 under Hans Rosbaud. The Sudwestfunk Radio underwrote an astounding 50 rehearsals in order that the piece be properly performed. During the latter 1950s he began allowing greater freedom for the performer in works like Improvisations sur Mallarme for soprano and chamber ensemble. In his Third Piano Sonata (1957), the pianist can reorder the five movements in a variety of ways, and certain passages within the movements offer alternate paths, thereby making the artist select which to play and which to omit. In 1957, Boulez embarked on Pli Selon Pli, a work in five movements for soprano and orchestra to texts by Mallarme, making use of a more restrained open-form technique. The middle movements are scored for sub-groups of the orchestra, balancing the larger forces of the outer movements. Boulez is also known for withdrawing and rewriting his compositions, making nearly everything he writes "a work in progress." For instance, ...explosante-fixe..., first sketched in 1971 has engendered a number of works and transitory phases over approximately twenty five years, including a 1996 version for Solo MIDI Flute and Chamber Ensemble. In 2000, he also received the prestigious Grawemeyer Award in Composition for his forty minute chamber piece Sur Incises for three pianos, three harps, and three percussionists.

Boulez is also one of the twentieth century's most influential conductors, known for extraordinarily precise performances of contemporary works by Bartok, Ligeti, Messiaen, and Varese, among many others. In 1968 he was named Music Director of both the BBC Symphony Orchestra and New York Philharmonic. In 1969, the Cleveland Orchestra named him Principal Guest Conductor. In 1970 French President Pompidou announced the experimental electronic music institute, Institut de Recherche et de Coordination Acoustique/Musique (IRCAM) to be under Boulez's administration, eventually causing him to withdraw from the BBC and New York posts. In 1975, he formed the Ensemble Inter Contemporain, an ensemble devoted entirely to the performance of new music, including his own Repons (1980). He was also appointed Principal Guest Conductor of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra in 1995. As a conductor, Boulez has made many notable recordings; in 1996 he won a Grammy for his recording of Debussy's La Mer with the Cleveland Orchestra.

- Joseph Stevenson (All Music Guide)


Французский композитор и дирижёр. Учился в Парижской консерватории (класс гармонии О. Мессиана), затем занимался под руководством Р. Лейбовица. Последователь А. Веберна. Булез - один из лидеров европейского композиторского авангарда в 1950-1960 годы. Экспериментировал в области конкретной музыки. Ряд произведений Булеза - хрестоматийные примеры техники пуантилизма, тотального сериализма, в его музыке присутствуют также элементы сонорики, алеаторики.

Был руководителем оркестра Би-Би-Си (1971-1975), Нью-Йоркского филармонического (1971-1977). Наиболее значительные оперные постановки: "Воццек" (Париж, Франкфурт, 1965), "Парсифаль" (Байрёйт, 1966), "Кольцо нибелунга" (Байрёйт, 1976). Участник первой полной постановки оперы Берга "Лулу" (1979, Париж). Организатор и руководитель концертов новой музыки "Domaine musical" (1954-67). Крупнейшим достижением Булеза стали записи оперы "Пеллеас и Мелизанда" Дебюсси (Sony) и вагнеровской тетралогии "Кольцо нибелунга" (Philips).

Автор симфонических, вокальных, инструментальных, электронных произведений, среди которых наиболее известны пьеса для контральто и шести инструментов "Молоток без мастера" (1954, 2-я редакция 1957 на стихи поэта-сюрреалиста Р. Шара), "Структуры" для 2 фортепиано (1-я серия - 1952-56, 2-я серия - 1961), три сонаты для фортепиано. Булез - автор ряда книг по проблемам музыки (в том числе "Ориентации", 1986). С 1975 возглавляет созданный им в Париже Институт исследований и координации музыкально-акустических проблем (IRCAM).


Ресурсы сети, связанные с исполнителем:
Bio Творческие портреты композиторов
www2.deutschegrammophon.com/artist/biography?ART_ID=BOUPI About
www.classical.net/music/comp.lst/boulez.php Biography
www.musicacademyonline.com/composer/biographies.php?bid=96 Biography
www.compositiontoday.com/articles/boulez.asp Biography, works
www.musicologie.org/Biographies/b/boulez_pierre.html Biography, works, bibliography (fr)
www.paristransatlantic.com/magazine/interviews/boulez.html Interviewe
ronsen.org/boulez/boulez6.html Links
books.google.ru/books?id=FLIxmQ59OmEC&lpg=PP1&ots=vlg3paWFll&dq=Pierre Boulez&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=false Pierre Boulez - A World of Harmony - Lev Koblyakov (book)
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Boulez About from 'wikipedia'
ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Булез,_Пьер О исполнителе из 'википедии' [ru]
en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Boulez About from 'wapedia.mobi' [mobile]
ru.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Булез,_Пьер О исполнителе из 'мобильной википедии' [mobile] [ru]
Хронологические таблицы (Hrono table)  
Поиск видео (Video Search) :  

CD коллекции, связанные с исполнителем:
  как основной исполнитель ...
 Pierre Boulez - 'Domaines' - 1992, Harmonia mundi
 Pierre Boulez - 'Orchestral Works & Chamber Music' - 2000, Col Legno
 Pierre Boulez - 'Repons, Dialogue De L'ombre Double' - 1998, Deutsche Grammophon
 Pierre Boulez - 'Rituel, Eclat, Multiples' - 1990, Sony
 Pierre Boulez - 'Sonatine For Flute & Piano, Piano Sonata No.1, Derive, Memoriale, Dialog' - 2006, Apex, Warner Classics
 Pierre Boulez - 'Sur Incises, Messagesquisse, Anthemes 2' - 2000, Chamber, Deutsche Grammophon
 Pierre Boulez - 'The Perfect Stranger, Boulez Conducts Zappa' - 1983, Vack
  как основной соисполнитель ...
 Daniel Barenboim - 'Stravinsky: Le Sacre Du Printemps. Debussy: La Mer. Boulez: Notations VII' - 2001, Teldec
 Daniel Barenboim - 'The Liszt Concertos' - 2004, Deutsche Grammophon
 Bela Bartok - 'Bartok Concertos (Pierre Boulez)' - 2008, Deutsche Grammophon
 Bela Bartok - 'Bluebeard's Castle' - 1982, Aquarius
 Alban Berg - 'Chamber Concerto. Three Orchestral Pieces, Op. 6. Violin Concerto' - 1995, Sony
 Alban Berg - 'Lulu (Pierre Boulez)' - 2004, Aquarius, Deutsche Grammophon
 Alban Berg - 'Wozzeck (Pierre Boulez)' - 1989, CBS Records
 Claude Debussy - 'Pelleas Et Melisande' - 1970, Sony
 Ingrid Karlen - 'Variations' - 1996, ECM
 Olivier Messiaen - 'Poemes Pour Mi, Sept Haikai, Le Reveil Des Oiseaux' - 1997, Deutsche Grammophon
 Jessye Norman - 'Jessye Norman Sings Alban Berg' - 1995, Sony
 Arnold Schoenberg - 'Choral Works (Pierre Boulez)' - 1990, Sony
 Arnold Schoenberg - 'Die Jakobsleiter, Kammersymphonie Nr. 1' - 1982, Sony
 Arnold Schoenberg - 'Gluckliche Hand, Variations For Orchestra, Verklarte Nacht' - 1993, Sony
 Arnold Schoenberg - 'Gurre-Lieder (Pierre Boulez). 4 Orchestral Songs, Op.22' - 1975, Sony
 Mitsuko Uchida - 'Schoenberg: Piano Concerto; Piano Pieces, Opp. 11 & 19; Berg: Piano Sonata' - 2001, Philips
 Edgar Varese - 'Arcana' - 1990, Sony
 Various Artists - 'Carter - A Symphony Of Three Orchestras. Varese - Deserts, Ecuatorial, Hyperprism' - 1995, Sony Classical
 Various Artists - 'Mahler:Ruckert-Lieder. Wagner: Wesendonck-Lieder' - 1995, Sony
 Anton Webern - 'Complete Webern. Boulez' - 2000, Deutsche Grammophon
 Anton Webern - 'Complete Works. OPP 1-31' - 1991, Sony
  как соисполнитель ...
 Bela Bartok - 'Cantata Profana. The Wooden Prince' - 1992, Deutsche Grammophon
 Gyorgy Ligeti - 'Chamber Concerto, Ramifications, Quartet No. 2, Aventures, Lux Aeterna' - 1988, Deutsche Grammophon

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